INSURGENCY AND IT’S EFFECT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH-EASTERN NIGERIA (2009-2017)
Background of Study
This study seeks to explain the dangers posed by the activities of the Boko Haram insurgency on the socio-economy of Nigeria between 2009 and 2017. It also aims at finding out the challenges and mechanisms of containing Boko Haram in order to ensure national stability, security of lives and properties, religious tolerance and so on among Muslims and Christians in Nigeria. Conflicts and crises are found at every stage of life. Individuals, groups, associations, clubs, societies, local, national and even world community continue to experience conflicts and crises in one way or the other. Conflicts and crises are features of life and they have been since the beginning of creation. So, conflicts and crises are permanent features of life which we have come to live and cope with and resolve from time to time. Their existence cannot be terminated in life unless we want to terminate life itself. However, a poorly handled conflict or crisis could be Nigerian are sincerely concerned that religion is being made to become the key issue in the stormy national question, pushing other elements of ethnicity and sectionalism to the background (West Africa Magazine, 30 March 1987: 559). This concern is heightened by the fact that violence, both overt and covert, has been the crudest and most pervasive of the mechanisms of religious fervor in Nigeria. Therefore, this work aims at exploring the causes, implications and solutions to the menace of Boko Haram sect from the point of view of economic and social differences in Nigeria. Economic instabilities in Nigeria are being caused by both political, social and economic factors to mention but a few. Since independence, Nigeria has never escaped a season that was free of crises both at community level and beyond. The crises, each time the occurred used to bring calamities of monumental effects that often shook the country to its foundations. From the 1980 Maitatsine uprising to the 2009 Boko Haram uprising, Nigeria was bedeviled by ethno- religious conflicts with devastating human and material losses. But the Boko Haram uprising of July 2009 was significant in that it not only set a precedent, but also reinforced the attempts by Islamic conservative elements at imposing a variant of Islamic religious ideology on a secular state. Whereas the religious sensitivity of Nigerians provided fertile ground for the breeding of Boko Haram sect, the sect’s blossoming was also aided by the prevailing economic dislocation in Nigerian society, the advent of party politics (and the associated desperation of politicians for political power), and the ambivalence of some vocal Islamic leaders, who, though they did not actively embark on insurrection, either did nothing to stop it from fermenting, or only freely condemned it. The internal factors coupled with growing Islamic fundamentalism around the world make a highly volatile Nigerian society prone to violence, as evidenced by the Boko Haram uprising. Given the approach of the Nigerian state to religious conflict, this violence may remain a recurring problem. This work documents and analyses the Boko Haram uprising, as well as its links with the promotion of Islam and the challenges it poses to the secularity of the Nigerian state.
The outbreak of the Boko Haram uprising in Nigeria in July 2009 marked yet another phase in the recurring pattern that violent uprisings, riots and disturbances have become in Nigeria. Given the heterogeneous nature of Nigerian society, the religions sensitivity of Nigerians, and the prolonged military rule that ended with the advent of civil rule in 1999, (but during which a significant section of the society was highly militarized). The situation could perhaps not have been difference. But what is alarming is the forceful attempt by Islamic fundamentalists to impose a religious ideology..
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Since 2009 when Boko Haram initially started its insurgency and the aftermath of the killing of Mohammed Yusuf the leader of the sect, the activities of the sect have continued unabated despite the effort of the government to curtail the heinous crime of the sect, over 10,000 people have been killed by Boko Haram. Most of the operations of the sect are concentrated in the North-East of Nigeria. The sect has use kidnapping and raping of women as a weapon of war. The poor are the most victims of the sect atrocities and the implications of the sect insurgency fall on the ordinary Nigerians. The purpose of this study to examine the implications of the sect in the North-East of Nigeria where the sect operations are predominant.
The Boko-haram insurgency has lead to several socio-economic disturbances ranging from lost of lives and property, internal displaced person, food shortage, reduction in labour force, persistent price increases due to food shortage, fall in international recognition, low standard of living, disrespect from international bodies etc.
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The study which was to determine the effect of insurgency on socioeconomic development of North-eastern Nigeria. The study will be guided with the following objective;
1.To examine the socio-economic implications of Boko Haram insurgency on Northern eastern Nigeria
2.To evaluate its operations in the North-East Nigeria with particular reference to Borno State.
3.To make recommendations for the way out of the sect insurgency in Borno State.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.What is the socio-economic implications of Boko Haram insurgency on Northern eastern Nigeria?
2.What are the operations of Boko-haram insurgency in the North-East Nigeria with particular reference to Borno State?
3.What are the recommendations for the way out of the sect insurgency in Borno State?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The social and economic disturbances of Nigeria between 2009-2017 which was clearly manifested in the recent bombings, killings, destructions of lives and properties in the country should be a source of worry to everyone. Despite the worsening nature of this problem, scholars have not shown much interest in discovering the socio-economic roots of this ugly incidence. To the best of our knowledge, this study is timely because there is no much scholarly study on the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria. This study therefore has both theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical importance of this study cannot be overemphasized as it will serve as a secondary source of data to researchers who would carry out study on this topic. Also, given that the recent “incidence of Boko Haram’s violence in northern Nigeria have alarmed the international community to the point where Nigeria is now perceived as a potential breeding ground for transnational terrorism and violent religious extremism” (Schwartz, 2010:1). The fear is that the upsurge of Boko Haram could turn Nigeria into a failed state. Failed or failing states are seen as the breeding ground for instability, criminality, insurgency, regional conflict, terrorism and economic instability(Reed, 2007:23). Thus, the ideas and insights generated in this study would add to the body of knowledge on religious crises in general and would spur further debate and research on the subject of Boko Haram sect’s activities in Nigeria. At the practical level, this study would help the Nigerian government in formulating and implementing measures that would contribute to containing the outbreak of Boko Haram activities or other religious crises. In particular, it hopes to proffer recommendations that the Nigerian state can adopt to effectively contain the Boko Haram threats without excessive recourse to repressive violence. Also, security agents and policy makers would find this study relevant as it will help them in the formulation of policies.
1.6 SCOPE\LIMITATION OF STUDY
The seek to evaluate the effective of Boko-haram insurgency in the socioeconomic development of Northern eastern Nigeria from the year 2009-2017. Borno state was selected as a case study due to the incessant occurrence of Boko-haram activities. The state since 2009 has experience countless bombing activities, Kidnapping, killings by Boko-haram sect, this is why the choice of study area best fit the study.
Data for the study was limited to Nine (9) years i.e. from 2009-2017 and sourcing for data was a little bit difficult due to the nature of the study.
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This explain the justification for the methods and materials used in data collection, presentation, analyst and interpretation.
1.7.1 Type of Data
For the purpose of this work, the researcher mainly used secondary sources of data to gather the requisite information for the study.
1.7.2 Sources of Data
The secondary sources of data used in this study included the use of books, journals, articles, newspapers, and related government publication.
1.7.3 Method of Data Collection
The use of secondary source of data collection for this study involves the exploration of content analysis of existing literature on Boko haram insurgency effect on socioeconomic development on North-eastern Nigeria. Thus, books, journal, articles, newspaper and related government publication were used to obtain needed information. This constitute major source of data for the study.
1.7.4 Method of Data Analysis and Interpretation
Data analysis here involves the use of qualitative descriptive analysis method to summarize the result of the subject under study. Through the qualitative descriptive analysis method. The researcher literary explains the major findings from the information generated through the secondary sources such that conclusion could be drawn based on such findings.
1.8 ORGANISATION OF STUDY
The research work consists of five (5) chapters. Chapter one which the introduction is consist of background of study, statement of problem, research objectives, research questions, significance of study, scope of study, research methodology, organisation of study and Operational definitions of terms.
Chapter two examine a review of empirical and evaluate the theoretical framework on which the study rests. Under the literature review, a thematic review is considered to cover areas such as hybrids wars, nature of book haram insurgency and concept of socioeconomic development.
Chapter three examines historical background of Boko haram sect in Nigeria which covers: origin of book haram sect, manifestations of the activities of book haram sect,analysis of book haram activities from 2009-2017, socioeconomic implication of book haram activities in North-eastern Nigeria
Chapter four represents and analyse insurgency and it effect on socioeconomic development of Borno state which was used as a case study. Thus the chapter will look at anature of insurgency in Borno state, economic, social and political effect of book haram in Borno state and also solutions proffer by government
Chapter five, being the concluding chapter, deals especially with the summary of the major findings on insurgency and it effect on socioeconomic development of North-eastern Nigeria, with a set of recommendation.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Insurgency; An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents. An insurgency can be fought via counter-insurgency warfare and may also be opposed by measures to protect the population, and by political and economic actions of various kinds aimed at undermining the insurgents’ claims against the incumbent regime.