COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND ECONOMICS DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ORLU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IMO STATE)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page – – – – – – – – i
Title Page – – – – – – – – – ii
Approval page / Certification page – – – – – iii
Dedication – – – – – – – – – iv
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – v
Table of Contents – – – – – – – vi
1.0 Introduction – – – – – – – 1
1.1 General Overview of the Study – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem – – – – – 5
1.3 Objective of the Study – – – – – – 6
1.4 Scope of the Study – – – – – – 10
1.5 Research Questions – – – – – – 11
1.6 Significance of the Study – – – – – 12
1.7 Limitations of the Study – – – – – 13
1.8 Definition of Terms – – – – – – 15
2.0 Literature Review – – – – – – 17
2.1 Understanding Poverty and the Solution – – – 18
2.2 Housing problem in Nigeria – – – – – 20
2.3 Co-operative Grouping – – – – – 23
3.0 Research Methodology – – – – – 35
3.1 Introduction – – – – – – – 35
3.2 Research Design – – – – – – 36
3.3 Sampling Design – – – – – – 37
3.4 Method of data Collection – – – – – 37
3.5 Procedure for Processing Data (Using % Method) – 39
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data – – – – 41
4.1 Presentation of Data – – – – – – 41
4.2 Analysis of Data – – – – – – – 44
4.3 Decision or Interpretation – – – – – 47
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations – 48
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – 48
5.2 Conclusion – – – – – – – 50
5.3 Recommendations – – – – – – 51
Bibliography – – – – – – – 54
1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
Co-operation provides vehicle for broadening and enriching live, infect co-operatives are playing leading roles in some of the largest and most important social and economic development of our times (source).
Co-operatives are vital element in many places in the world today and that they are flexible instruments that can be adopted to serve their members in the future. Co-operative all over the world are man aged democratically both in principle and structure. The present in Nigeria is creating a new environment and offer new opportunities that are favorable to the development of co-operatives in Nigerian.
These new condition offer themselves both co-operative and international companies.
Furthermore to justify its prime role is social, economic and political development particularly in developed counties like England known for consumer co-operative France known for credit co-operatives the movement is a world wide phenomenon. It has developed from single traditional forms of mutual institution. The institution has gamed world wide acceptance because of the great rote. It has been playing in the developing counties. The economic success of co-operatives inevitable yield which in turn yield better income and which in a sense means better living standards for members and their fertilizes.
The creeping poverty facing Nigeria has been well documented the World Bank and United Nations. Perhaps a better picture can be given by looking at the condition of the children who suffer permanent damages because of poor education in adequate diet and dilapidated housing. The health problems of the children of the rural drivellers are.
Particularly serve as indicated by the medical doctors who examined children in the country during the last house to house immunization. The parents of those children are unemployed, some of them are underemployed.
Underemployment refers to a situation where workers who are qualified for a job have no job perform. While underemployment occurs when productive resources are not utilized to their full capacity for example, a person who is sweeping floor is underemployment. It is possible to have full employment yet there is under employment, suppose you receive your degree in economics but the job you could find was pumping gas. In this situation you are employed, but underemployed.
Also one of the economic problems that has continued to eat deep into the system and to poverty is inflation. This is the persistent up ward movement in the general price level or average price level for goods and services. This is decrease in the general level of purchasing power of the Naira. As the price level goes up, the purchasing power of the naira doctrines as well as when the price level goes down the purchasing power of the naira rise. The litter money in the hands of rural poor masses cannot buy any thing as a result of the inflation in the state presently practicing is a discipline of hunger and poverty.
There are other erits which includes mean’s exploration of man, falsification of weight and measures child labor unfair competition etc. it is all these short comings (evils) of the individual capitalism which the \o-operative system want to subdue and suppress in its entirety.
Development and its importance especially rural development cannot be overemphasized in Nigeria. In a state where more than to percent of the populations are rural drivellers, it becomes more crucial while emphasis should be placed on the rural pleasant, with out them, the key to substantial and grass root development cannot be realized in the state. Therefore rural development whether embarked upon by the national Government through the development of co-operative societies must take into account the real need and the aspiration of the rural people, it must also involve ways of making them part and parcel of the development programmes through proper mobilization and empowerment.
Finally, poverty alleviation and programmes (PAP) currently being approved by obansend government. Poverty eradication or alleviation can only work through the rural dwellers imitating change by organizing societies like cop-operatives which they can control. These cop-operatives have had varying degrees of success elsewhere lie England, will consumer co-operatives and finance, with industrial cop-operatives movement, just to mention bat a few.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The socio-political environment existing now in the country since man 1999 when the present governments of CHIEF IKEDI OHAKIM administration look over is quite different from what it was in those early days of military regime and pure capitalism. Today it is the mixed economy every where with both private and public properties in existence. Nobody will went the society to return to the old dictatorship and subsistence living. Everybody enjoys high technology, division of labor, mass production of a wide assortment of good the right and freedom of the masses are respected the interference from government in other business organization like the co-operatives are less. These and more are the characteristics if the modern economy.
Co-operative which provides the technology for the masses and their participation in those functions of the ceremony that implied on their lives
Some of the problems are:
- Capital accumulation
- Population high or lows state which
ILLITERACY: this affects the country so much where a person cannot read and write.
UNEMPLOYMENT: This refers to a situation where workers who are qualified for jobs to perform. It also occurs when person who is capable or willing to work.
INFLATION: This is a situation where the goods is increasing continuously in a price level of goods and services in country at particular time.
CAPITAL ACCUMULATION: poor capital accumulation is the fallout of poor savings, poor investment and low productivity. In under developed counties the ability to invest is low, hence less productivity and low savings.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) came in to being in January 2009 to replace the defunct poverty alleviation programme. The objectives of national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) are to eradicate absolute.
They ensure that all Nigerians are provided with:
- Steady source of income
- High purchasing power
- Abundant good quality and nutritional food
- Basic health care facilities
- Good quality education
- Good quality drinking water
- Good standard of housing units
- Stable and affordable power supply
- Cheap and affordable consumer products
- Good urban and rural communication facilities
- Conducive environment for production and trade.
The economic development is measured by the ability to achieve certain goals or target. These goals, target relates to bolt state and individual citizens. When maturity of interest between the state and the individual prevails the opportunity for success is greatest for co-operative make their maximum contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development, they must be complimentary rather than completive with the interest of the actual or potential members of co-operative. Because these associations benefit from those who use their services they are in strategies position to primate economic development and poverty alleviation.
The overall objectives of national poverty eradication programme (NAPEP) is to eradicate obsolete poverty in Nigeria by the year 2010, the first stage is to resolve hope to most of the effected people by lowering the poverty line and pushing the people above the line.
The second stage is the restorations of economic independence whereby most Nigerians particularly in rural areas shall be very active in clearly define national development activities.
The third stage was designed to be that of wealth creation whereby all Nigerians would be empowered to afford all basic necessities of life and actively be part of national development.
In achieving its objective of eradicating absolute poverty in Nigeria by the year 2010, the various ministries and agencies have executed products aimed at reducing the poverty level. A total number of youths were trained all over the country the capacity acquisition programme (CAP) while 76,532 graduates were training under the mandatory attachment programme (MAP) also a total of youth information centers were built in each state and 2 in the FCT. A total of 2,497 three wheel paggio vehicles (KEKE NAPEP) where also sold to beneficiaries of a discount all over the country.
These direct contributions to their individual members also strengthen co-operative opportunities to help in the achievement of national goals.
It is in this direction that this research study further gathers spiral momentum that this to active the following strategies.
- Know the economic ventures co-operative can embark on.
- To what extent do such economic ventures contribute is alleviating the poverty of the messes.
- The values of co-operative development.
- Suggesting ways of building up capital for co-operative so as to enable them diversify into profitable ventures.
- Obstacles hindering co-operative economic development and opportunities.
- Solution to such obstacles and relate them to all co-operative societies.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research’s area of study is the co-operative department of Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank in Nigeria.
It came into being in the year 2000 following the merger of the former NACB (Nigeria Agriculture and co-operative bank limited with PBN people bank of Nigeria).
This Nigeria agricultural co-operative and rural development bank acts as a lender providing financed and advisory services for agricultural and rural development deploying appropriate technology, light skilled and economic staff, there by contributing to the economic transformation of Nigeria and Nigerians also. The duty of this organization includes lending many to framers of self help groups, other without the involvement of any intermediary.
This organization has staff strength of one hundred. They have paid employees that receive monthly salaries depending on their qualification and grade level which encompasses first school learning certificate to degree holder.
There are source difficulties that militate against the study such as time and the gathering of research materials. This seems to e one of the major constraints of the study. Lack of materials in the school library as a while every big hindrance to the research work. There are other factors such as finance to embark on source research, this is intensive research work. These drams back the rate of improvement that would have been achieved.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS.
- QUESTION (1): Does the Nigeria motivate? Yes No
- Do you appreciate the programme with the motivate you are given? Yes No
- QUESTION (3): Do you like the effort of the programme?
- QUESTION (4): Do you think that the programme will reduce the problem of poverty in Nigeria? Yes No
- QUESTION (5): How do people react to wards the programme of poverty in the country? Yes No
- QUESTION (6): If the programme will help the country to increase our economy what opinion would you suggest? Yes No
- QUESTION (7): Will the people attitude change the level of poverty in Nigeria? Yes No
- QUESTION (8): Do you like effort of the poverty alleviation.
- QUESTION (9): Is the people of the country included in the programme? Yes No
- QUESTION (10): Where the people of offer delegate the responsibility of the programme?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work when completed will be beneficial to the following:-
- THE GOVERNMENT:- The government will find it of very importance since the problems will be lighted and measures given as recommendation.
- THE ECONOMY: When the programmes are will implemented they will course a boost in the economy since employment will be created. Also all this ills associated will poverty will be alleviated.
- RESEARCH STUDENT: Further research on this topic or related topic will also see the material to be very helpful.
In 1995 the petroleum trust fund (PTF) was also established to use. The gain far increase in domestic prices of petroleum product to complete abandoned projects rehabilitates decaying social and economic infrastructure and other services nation wide support general economic activities. The Urban mass transit programme was launched in 1989 to facilitate effective urban mass transit services for the benefits of the masses. Organs poverty alleviation were indigenous non-government organization such as the national council for eromen societies who provided shelter to the poor and needy.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY.
On the other hand many large Nigeria cities are usually associated with rural communities. Part of this phenomenon is due to urban expansion where former villagers were siuallowed up by sprawling cities, with change in leaned use and livelihood patterns, although some people are still able to retail a rural predicted on subsistence farming and other forms of natural resources use. Migration between rural and urban areas in Nigeria has a significant impact on both the rural and urban areas because of the number of people involved and the most of this people have been the young’s often male most productive members of rural population. Inequality of opportunities for economic advancement is the major factor combating rural-urban area in Nigeria. Another factor leading to rural-urban migration is the neglect of the infrastructure of rural areas, many people may move to the city for better economic or education opportunities due to back of markets good transportation facilities, schools health facilities and so on in the village. From their survey of rural infrastructure in Nigeria, impeachable (1981) found that wide urban-rural disparities were a major reason for the emphasized that looking at food, road and rural infrastructure.
It should also be noted Migration patterns are not restricted to rural and movement. There is growing evidence in urban, and rural migration on the increase on Nigeria, and includes not only the retired people who formed the majority of earlier returned migrants. A member of factors many as which were exacerbated by the Structure Assessment Programme (SAP) inflated in 1985 – accounted for the returned migration, including disillusionment with urban, condition declining business forms, loss of work serious ill – health death of the family bread winners disgust with urban noise, congestion or other urban living condition (Okpara 1983). Akanwan in Nassarawa state of Nigeria, Yunuse (1999) found that many urban in formal sector work moved to rural areas for school, in order to reduce their financial increasingly, stiff competition in the cities. In her study in a northern Kaduna State Village. Meagher (1999) reported or rural towards returned migration in a significant number of rural households. She note however that this process does not appear to be bunging skills and capital bank community on the contrary return migration has involved a retreat from collapsed opportunities outside (Meagher 1992). Rural to Urban Migration is another important features link different are some activities such as palm or rubber tapping, hampering, trading in the farm product or work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
(1) ALLEVIATION:- Simply means a process where by government directly or indirectly reduce the stress of the poor mass by creating job opportunities for the betterment of them
(2) ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT:- This entails a desirable change in the National income that is an increase in perceptive income. It is an all found improvement in the utilization of all sectors of the economy namely agriculture, Industry, Mineral resource, manpower training and entrepreneurship which is capable of boosting a better employment opportunities and adequate provision of infrastructural facilities.
(3) POVERTY:- This simply means a state of being poor. Poverty also means that opportunities and choice most to human development are deride. It also explains the inability to provide for sustenance those basic necessities of life.
It reveals those problems the under development or poor countries suffer from. Such as malnutrition, poor health, little political voice, lack of capital, mea reliving on small and marginal farms or in dilapidated urban stems, law technology, unemployment, population explosion, ethnic crises, dependency on foreign goods and backward economy.