INFLUENCE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN MATHEMATICS
The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of instructional materials to the academic performance of secondary school students in Mathematics in Oyo State. The population for the study comprised of all Secondary School Class II students from among which 180 were sampled. The instrument for the study is a 30 multiple-choice self- designed Mathematics Achievement Test (PHEAT).The instrument was validated by specialists in Mathematics Test and Measurement and Educational Management. Test-re- test method and estimation of internal consistency was used to ascertain the reliability. The reliability coefficients of 0.73 and 0.75 were obtained respectively. The study generated four hypotheses that were tested at the significance level of 0.05. ANOVA and ANCOVA statistical tools were used to analyse the data collected. The study found that there was a significant difference in the pre-test and post-test of students in the experimental group. The study also found that gender effect was not statistically significant in Mathematics. The study concluded that students who were taught with instructional materials performed better than those taught without. The study therefore recommended that teachers of Mathematics should employ the use of essential instructional materials for their teaching and also improvise where and when the materials are not available. It therefore becomes imperative to have concerted efforts among parents, school and the government to make available important and necessary instructional materials to teachers of Mathematics for enhanced teaching and consequents improved achievement of students in the subject.
1.1 Background of the Study
Instructional materials according to Emma and Ajayi (2004) are those things which help teaching and learning process. It helps to promote understanding of the concept and generalization by making lesson practical and realistic. Any teacher who has the interest of the student at heart is bound to think of the ways and means he will employ to make his teaching and learning process moiré effective and more interesting to the student.
Health on the other hand, is been defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) (2004) “as a state of complete, physical, mental and social well being not merely the absent of disease or infirmity.
According to Odue (2011), Mathematics is a process of acquiring health information to make judgment on health behaviour and practices. Mathematics is sum of all experiences that will develop desirable attitudes, practices and knowledge of an individual, family of community health. The emphasis in Mathematics also includes a teaching and learning transaction between the health teachers and the recipient or student. According to Adeniyi (2000), the effect of instructional materials is to communicate more permanently, health related issues, and information is retained when supplemented with aid. Certainly instructional materials when carefully selected and skilfully used will make learning more effective. Therefore it becomes necessary to investigate the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics .Using Oyo state as the case study.
However, man and animal possess the necessary abilities for learning. In other words they are potential learners. Certain factors within and outside the learner determine how effectively each individual learn. They are internal when they lie within the individual and external when they lie outside the learner or individual as the case may be.
Instructional materials can be in different forms such as textual and non-textual, the visual the auditory and audio-visual. Witwoth and Benson (2003), indicate that there is a need for research on the use and effectiveness of instructional materials in Mathematics classroom that would enhances its teaching. With these concerns in mind and the educational development in OyoState. The current study is carried out to address the issues of the effect of instructional materials in Mathematics teaching in the schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The effect of instructional materials in Mathematics instructions has been widely researched but many questions are still remains unanswered. The needs for exploring locally available materials as an alternative for the grossly unavailable materials in our schools, resourcefulness of the teacher must be in line with the learners’ curriculum and environment so that classroom teaching does not have to be retarded by lack of funds.
Hence, government must strive to develop her local technology in all its ramifications, since Mathematics is interested in providing solutions to man’s problems holistically. Many writers in Mathematics have pointed out the grossly unavailability of instructional materials coupled with teachers attitude towards the utilization during classroom teaching-learning situations.
The problems are that; instructional materials not available in our schools, teachers are not improvising and reluctant in using them. Thus, in this research attempt would be made to:
Identify various secondary schools in Oyo State that required instructional materials.
Identify instructional materials needed for effective teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary school.
Identify instructional materials available in secondary school in Oyo State.
Identify how the effect of instructional materials like chalkboard, funnel board, model real things, overhead projector, tape recorders, radio, television etc. affect the performance of students in secondary school in Oyo State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study is;
- To identify how frequently Mathematics teacher utilizes instructional materials during Mathematics lessons.
- To identify problem associated with these of instructional materials in Mathematics instruction.
- To identify reason why the teacher do not use instructional materials.
- To identify the benefits of instructional materials to the student.
- To identify suggested solutions to the problem of instructional materials.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- How frequently do Mathematics teachers utilize instructional materials during Mathematics lesson?
- What are the problems associated with the effect of instructional materials in Mathematics instruction?
- What are the reasons why the teachers do not use instructional materials?
- What are the benefits of instructional materials to the students?
- What are the suggested solutions to the problems?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were generated for the study:
- The achievement mean scores of students will not be significantly different in the experimental and control groups
- The achievement mean scores of male students will not be significantly different in the experimental and control groups.
- The achievement mean scores of female students will not be significantly different in the experimental and control groups.
- The achievement of students in Social Studies will not be significantly different based on gender.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is to identify the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of Mathematics and how both the teacher and the learner can manipulate the instructional materials to achieve maximum learning objectives.
The study would be a great importance to the ministry of education and the Edo State Government and society at large. It will certainly help the ministry too to identify the basic instructional materials for teaching and learning of Mathematics. This is equally of great importance to the students in Oyo, since it will help them to identify the instructional materials that are lacking in their school and make necessary provision for them.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The scope of the study covers the use and effect of instructional materials in teaching Mathematics in Oyo State.
It is the desire of the researcher to go round some selected primary and post primary school in Oyo State to make some observation of the effect of instructional materials by the teachers and learners to effect the teaching and learning situation.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Instructional materials: Things that help teaching and learning process to be more effective and efficient.
Health: As a complete state of physical, mental social wellbeing not merely the absence of disease.
Education: Process of requiring information, instruction, knowledge and skills that brings about attitudinal change in the behaviour of an individual.
Performance: The process of accessing the student behavioural change through process of asking question.
Utilize: Making the effect of instructional materials on the individual.
Audios: These are teaching aids which appeal to sense of hearing.
Audio-Visual: These are instructional materials that can be used to assist teaching and learning via the sense of sight and hearing.
1.9 Justification of Study
Learning is more meaningful to the child through the the effect of instructional materials.
Teachers who use instructional materials are more effective in their teaching than those who do not make the effect of instructional materials.
Instructional materials are so expensive and difficult to make.
A lot of teachers teach in abstraction.
It is the duty of the ministry of education to supply or provide instructional materials to school.
It is only the student in training that makes the effect of the instructional materials in order to pass their examination.
Enough instructional materials are not being used in primary and post primary school in Oyo State.