THE EXTENT OF AVAILABILITY AND USES OF COMPUTERS IN STATE AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS)
Table Of Contents
List Of Table
1.1 Background Of The Study
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
1.4 Significance Of The Study
1.5 Scope Of The Study
1.6 Research Questions
2.0 Literature Review
2.2 The Areas Where Computers Are Used
2.3 The Kinds Of Software/Application Programmes Learned Altitudes Of Students Towards computer Studies
2.4 Computer Studies Curriculum
3.0 Research Methodology
3.1 Design Of The Study
3.2 Area Of The Study
3.3 Population Of The Study
3.4 Sample And Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instruments Used In The Study
3.6 Validation Of The Instruments
3.7 Reliability Of The Instruments
3.8 Method Of Data Collection
3.9 Method Of Data Analysis
4.0 Presentation Of Data And Data Analysis
4.1 Presentation Of Data And Analysis
4.2 Major Findings Of The Study.
5.0 Discussions, Summary, Recommendation, Conclusions And Limitation
5.1 Discussions Of The Findings
5.2 Limitation Of The Study
5.5 Suggestions For Further Studies
Background of the Study
The emergence of computers has revolutionized the way we access, process, store, retrieve and disseminate information within organizations or across the globe. Whether it is vocal, pictorial, textual, numeric or macro- electric based, hence ICT is now a topical issue in Nigeria. It may not be because it is relatively new in this part of the world, but because ICT encompass a range of technologies application systems of microprocessors that have had profound impact on the society and its way of life. Computers revolution is gradually affecting the nature of leaning and the production of knowledge and transforming the world in unexpected way (Adewoyin, 2007). This has facilitated the paradigm shift from the traditional instructional material or traditional pedagogical methods to a more modern and innovative technological based teaching learning methods. The traditional instructional method is the teacher centered approach of instructional delivery while the modern and innovative technological based teaching creates the opportunity for interactions between the teacher and the students.
ICT has simplified education through the application of electronics media, internet among other ICT devices. ICT is an acronym which stands for information and telecommunication technology. Ayodele in Oluwarobi (2012) defines ICT as electronic-based technology that is generally used to retrieve, store, process, and package information as well as provide access to knowledge. Computers according to Okoro (2008) is a means of accessing or receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending ideas, perception or information through computers and other communication facilities. Egunjobi and Bode (2005)
refers to ICT as a general expression, which covers computers, telecommunication and electronics. Yoloye and Adekawonishe, (2005) define ICT as computer based tools used by people to work on the information and communication processing needs of an organization. As far back as 2002 Badru views ICT as the science and activity of processing, storing and sending information by using computer. This implies that information and communication technology is the use of hardware and software to enhance communication. ICT refers to devices used in association with the computer which is capable of receiving, storing, transferring, processing and sending ideas from one source to another.
There are different ICT devices that can be used in teaching. Ugwu and Oboegbulem (2011) state that ICTs in education encompasses a great range of rapidly evolving technologies such as desktops, notebooks, digital camera, local area network (LAN), the internet, the World Wide Web (WWW), CD Rom, DVDs, applications spread sheets, tutorials, simulations, electronic mails, digital libraries, computer mediated conferencing, video conferencing and virtual reality. It covers computer hardware, software, the network and other digital devices like video, audio, camera and so on which convert information (text, sound, motion etc) into digital form. ICT devices for teaching and learning include Computer, Internet, Power Point, Television, Overhead Projectors, Camera, Radio Cassette, Video Tape, Audio Cassette, Audio CD,
World Wide Web (WWW), Telephone, etc (Adeyemi & Olayele, 2010). The various ICT facilities used in the teaching learning process in schools include; radio, television, computers, overhead projectors, optical fibres, fax machines, CD-Rom, Internet, electronic notice board, slides, digital multimedia, video/ VCD machine and so on (Babajide & Bolaji, 2003; Bryers, 2004 ; Bandele, 2006 & Ofodu, 2007). Some of the examples of ICT tools according to Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukidem and Jaga (2011) include computer lap tops, video machines, multimedia projectors or power points, digital cameras, internet facilities, computer net work, telephone (GSM and land phones), e-library, television programmes, data base among others.
The relevance of ICT in teaching and learning process cannot be overemphasized. According to Ajayi (2008) teaching and learning have gone beyond the teacher standing in front of a group of pupils and disseminating information to them without the students’ adequate participation. Ajayi reiterates that with the aid of ICT, teachers can take students beyond traditional limits, ensure their adequate participation in teaching and learning process and create vital environments to experiment and explore. This new development is a strong indication that the era of teachers without ICT skills are gone. Any classroom teacher with adequate and professional skills in ICT utilization will definitely have his students perform better in classroom learning. ICT provide a variety of tools to support and facilitate teacher’s professional competence. It transforms teaching and helps teachers to be more efficient and effective, thereby increasing their interest in teaching (Yusuf, 2005a). ICT can assist in the organization and the structure of the course and course materials thereby promoting rethinking and revision of curriculum and instructional strategies (Egomo, Enyi & Tah, 2012). The authors reiterate that ICTs increase teachers’ emphasis on individualized instruction, and as such enable them spend more time with individual students. This suggests that use of ICT in teaching and learning process supports individualized instruction. Individualized instruction is a process of teaching where the individual differences of different learners are attended to in the teaching and learning process. ICT utilization helps students to carry out more independent work and gives the teacher more time to focus on teaching higher level concepts in the classroom (Yusuf, 2005a). Ololube in
Akuegwu, Ntukidem, Ntukjidem, and Jaga (2011) reported that ICT has the potential to accelerate, enrich and deepen teachers’ skills; motivate and engage students in learning; helps to relate school experiences to work practices; contributes to radical changes in schools and strengthens teaching. In the words of Ojajuni, Agbelusi and Aladesote (2013) ICTs help to relate academics to the practices of today’s work. Studies have revealed that, students who learn in a technology-rich environment experience positive effects on their performance in all subject areas (Fagbamiye, in Eze and Aja, (2014). In the same line of thought, Becta (2003) states that ICT provides fast and accurate feedback to student and speed of computation and graphing, thus freeing student to focus on strategies and interpretations. Information and communication technologies, especially network technologies have been found to encourage active learning, support innovative teaching, reduce the isolation of teachers, and encourage teachers and students to become active researchers and learners.
The benefits of ICT can better be tapped in the pedagogy when the
technological device is utilized. Utilization refers to the process of using an object for a purpose. According to Hornby(2001)utilization is the process of using something or materials for practical purposes. It refers to the act of using objects, events or substances in improving a situation or practice. Amalu (2015) defines utilization as the process of using objects to improve educational practice. Utilization of ICT in teaching then refers to the process of using ICT devices in improving the practice of teaching. According to Lawrence and Veena (2013), ICT utilization include basic actions such as: managing electronic files, using computerized databases and spreadsheets, sending and receiving e-mail messages, and creating documents with graphics. Hence, ICT can be utilized in teaching and learning by having the ability to accessing online resources, creating desktop, publishing documents, developing multimedia presentations, selecting and customizing instructional software to fit students’ needs, streamlining recordkeeping and other administrative procedures with electronic tools, and observing the correct protocols in sharing intellectual property (Lawrence & Veena, 2013). It could be seen as the process of using ICT facilities in improving teaching and learning. According to Nworgu (2006), utilization of ICT facilities, involves various method which include systematized feedback system, computer-based operation/network, video conferencing and audio conferencing, internet/ worldwide websites and computer assisted instruction. ICT utilization is the presentation and distribution of instructional content through web environment (e-teaching) to support learning and communication (Yusuf, 2005b).
Computers can be utilized in teaching Government. Government, like any other subject in Arts/Humanities or social sciences suffers the problem of multiplicity of definitions. Some of these definitions are restrictive in scope while others are more general. There are three major approaches to the definition of government. The first approach defines government as an institution of the state. According to Olisa, Okoli and Nwabufo, (1990) Government as an institution of the State refers to a body of people and structures that makes, executes and implements policies in a State. By this, government means a body of persons and institutions that makes and enforces law in a given state. The word institution or agency in the above definition refers to the organ of government, namely; legislature, executive and judiciary. It is the legislature that makes law, the executive implements the law while the judiciary interprets the law. It is the harmonious working of this organ and the people that work in them that makes government an institution of the state. The second approach defines government as a process or art of governing. By this, government means the process of administering and implementing laid down rules and regulations in a department, ministry or company. Government as a process is the actual state administration (Okeke, 2013). It is the business of administering the state for the attainment of the societal goals (Okonkwo, 2014). On the other hand Government as a subject refers to Government as a discipline. It could be seen as government as an academic field of study. Government as an academic field of study is called political science. Government as political science is the study of how to acquire, consolidate and use state power to attain individual and societal goals by the wielder. Government as an academic field of study has the following branches; public administration, international relations, political philosophy or thought, local government and government as a teaching subject. Generally, government as a subject refers to the study of how people are organized and governed; the study of conflict resolution; the study of political behavior of people within a body polity (Nwankwo, 1992). This is the thrust of this study as well as the main idea being conveyed when Government is talked about in academic field.
Government as a subject has certain objectives. The aims and/ or objectives of government as a subject in the post-basic education level according to the Federal
Ministry of Education (2007) are to enable students;
- understand the concept, principle, institutions and process of government.
- Recognize his role as an informed citizen and his contribution towards the achievement of national development.
- Become active participants in the democratic process of the nation and their local environments.
- Appreciate the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community.
- appreciate the challenges and dynamics of past and present government in
Nigeria and the world.
- Recognize the role of ICT in e-government and in fostering the process of governments in the world.
From the objectives of Government as a subject it could be deduced that the focus of government as a field of study is to help students understand the institutions of the state (country) and the process of governance. This understanding encourages individuals as citizens to actively participate in the process of national development. The new government curriculum is aimed at making the field relevant and functional to the new political currents of Nigeria and the world. Its goal is to equip individuals to understand these currents and become active participants in the political processes of their societies.
For full realization of the reasons for study of Government as a subject in senior secondary schools, practical instructional media like ICT and its associated devices are necessary. The Federal Government of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004) is mindful of the importance of information and communication technology in the world of today that is ICT driven hence its integration in the school curriculum at all levels of education in the country. The document states that government will provide the necessary ICT infrastructure and training needed in the secondary schools. However, visits of the researcher to a number of secondary schools in the area of study and indeed schools in other areas show that there is no significant sign that this lofty government policy has been implemented in a state that prides education as its’ biggest industry. The study therefore seeks to ascertain the extent of utilization of Information and Communication Technology in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. According to Adeyemi and Olayele (2010)it has however been observed that in many public secondary schools in Nigeria ICT tools like computer, internets and other telecommunication technologies that can aid teaching and learning are hardly used or not available.
It is in this guise that this study investigates the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government as a subject. Observation has shown that there are no functional internet facilities in most of the secondary schools (Ekundayo, 2009). This appears to hinder the extent of teachers’ exposure to the use of ICT in teaching. Teachers’ inability to apply ICT in teaching school subjects in our secondary schools is one of the problems militating against effective implementation of secondary education curriculum. Studies have shown that ICTs are not considered central to the teaching and learning process especially in the developing countries as most of the tests and examinations in schools follow traditional paper and pencil instead of the use of improved technology on-line assessment, tele-conferencing etc (Eze & Aja, 2014). The authors affirm that despite the benefits of ICT devices to teaching and learning, their usage in secondary schools are still low as teachers and school management are yet to embrace and utilize ICT in instructional exercise. Majority of secondary school teachers do not use computers while teaching their lessons. A cursory look at the secondary schools in Nigeria has shown that many teachers in the system still rely much on the traditional “chalk and talk” method of teaching rather than embracing the use of ICT (Ajayi & Ekundayo, 2009). Yusuf, Bashir and Dare (2013) state that most teachers in secondary schools do not use ICT in teaching English language. According to Okebukola (1997), computer is not part of classroom technology in over 90% of public schools in Nigeria, thus the chalkboard and textbooks continue to dominate classroom activities. In spite of the role ICT plays in the educational development and by extension, the overall development of a country, there is still the problem of utilization of ICT in teaching in the Nigerian educational system while most secondary schools in developed countries have digitalized classrooms such that teaching and learning activities are carried out using ICT resources (Cooper, 2006). This is an indication that the students are still lagging behind in the trend of changes in the world as teachers find it difficult to use ICT in teaching which the current practice in teaching learning process in most advanced countries of the world. Thus, there is the need to replace the traditional pedagogical practices that still underpin the educational system in the country, hence the need for the application of ICT in Nigerian Secondary Schools.
Nonetheless, there are some factors that influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching in Nigeria. Factors such as teachers’ educational level, age, gender, educational experience, school location and attitude towards technologies can influence the utilization of ICT (Schiller, 2003). However, this study is interested in factors such as the educational qualification of teachers, gender and school location and how they influence utilization of ICT in teaching. The reason for choice of the three factors is because they constitute the core teachers that influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching. Educational qualification could teachers’ utilization ICT in teaching. Teacher’s qualification on ICT skills is the mark of academic attainment. Teachers’ qualification on the other hand is the mark of academic attainment of a teacher on pedagogical knowledge of contents, methods and materials that promote teaching and learning towards a better academic outcome (Onyishi, 2015). Teacher qualification is the professional, educational or vocational growth of a teacher acquired through training in a formal educational institution which determines the skills, knowledge of subject matter, competence and experiences, of the teacher in a particular field of education. It is a programme of study successfully completed by a teacher which exposes him/her to pedagogical knowledge of skills, subject matter, methods and materials as to be able to perform efficiently and effectively in the field of study he or she specializes (Asiwe, 2012). The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2013) states that the minimum qualification for teaching Government as a subject in Nigeria is the
Bachelor of Science in Political Science Education. This presupposes that a qualified teacher of Government as a subject could through the training acquired in teacher education utilize ICT in teaching learning process. However, it is not certain whether teachers’ qualification influences the extent teachers utilize ICT in teaching.
Gender is another important factor that could influence teachers’ utilization of
ICT in teaching in secondary schools. Gender according to Eddy, Brownell and Wenderoth (2014) is a socio-cultural construct, a category that sorts and organizes social relationships between human male and female. Afonja (2002) defines gender as a socially constructed concept based on the assumed position that a group of humans should possess. Jadesola (2002) also opines that gender is socially constructed for the purpose of allocating powers, duties, responsibilities, status and roles in any social context. Graham (2001) refers to gender as a complex social construction upon biological sex, but it is not the same as sex. He further argued that gender alone drives us and sex is an incidental feature. If the proper terms for sex are male and female, the corresponding terms for gender are masculine and feminine. Gender refers to role assigned to male and female in the society which affects the way they behave towards some events, objects or activities. That a woman does not climb palm tree in some societies does not mean that they cannot climb it, that women do not act radically in decision making before their male counterparts does not mean they cannot but the society has it that a woman must be submissive to man. All these and many more could influence women’s activities and could as well influence their disposition towards ICT utilization in teaching Government in secondary schools. Gender differences and the use of ICT have been reported in several studies. However, studies concerning teachers’ gender and ICT use have cited female teachers’ low levels of computer use due to their limited technology access, skill, and interest (Volman & Van Eck, 2001). Research studies revealed that male teachers used more ICT in their teaching and learning processes than their female counterparts (Kay, 2006; Wozney, venkatesh & Abrami, 2006). Conversely, Jamieson-Proctor, Burnett, Finger and Watson (2006) conducted a study on teachers’ utilization of ICT in schools in Queensland State. Results from 929 teachers indicated that female teachers were utilizing technology into their teaching less than the male teachers. Similarly, Yukselturk and Bulut (2009) state that gender gap has reduced over the past years. The authors reiterate that presently, a greater number of females than males have used internet and web technologies. However, some studies revealed that gender variable was not a predictor of ICT utilization in teaching (Norris, Sullivan, Poirot & Soloway, 2003). These controversies on the influences of gender on teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching makes this study necessary. This is because, it is not certain whether the situation of being male or female influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching Government.
Apart from teachers’ gender, school location could influence teachers’ utilization of ICT in teaching. It refers to the area a school is sited (Okonkwo, 2014). According to Ezeudu (2003) school location is the rural and/ or urban setting of a school. School location refers to the place a school is found or built. Urban setting is characterized by heterogeneity of population and existence of abundant basic infrastructure. Schools built in the town could be said to have urban location while schools built in villages or remote areas where probably only the indigenes dwell is said to have rural location. Rural setting is characterized by homogeneity of population and existence of little or no infrastructural facilities. State funding for ICT devices tend to be more available in urban than rural areas. The more availability of ICT in urban area than in the rural area could influence the extent teachers utilize ICT in teaching in the urban and rural areas respectively. Buttressing the above view, Achuonye (2012) states that more urban schools and teachers possess computers, though the ratio of pupils per computer is generally high in both areas; that both teachers and pupils in both locations experience low accessibility to computers, which are used mainly for office work rather than instructional purposes or individual use; that more teachers in urban areas are computer literate, a skill acquired through mostly self-effort though all acknowledged the importance of computer literacy skills to teacher effectiveness; that Computer Technology/Science is a subject in both rural and urban primary schools, mostly taught by the class teachers with or without computer skills, and dominantly lecture-based ; though class population was not too high, learning environment was found inadequate due to limited computers, absence of computer labs, particularly, in rural schools, and general poor electricity power supply. Nonetheless, currently, schools both in the urban and rural areas are increasingly being equipped with ICT facilities for teaching, learning and administrative purposes.
Utilization of ICT for teaching in Nigeria faces a lot of challenges. These problems that affect utilization of ICT in teaching according to Kabiru and Sakiyo (2013) include lack of qualified teachers with requisite skills, lack of electricity and computer hardware and software; lack of awareness on the utilization of the ICT and apathy of teachers to new innovation. Teachers’ incompetence is always a barrier to the utilization of ICT in developing countries (Pelgrum, 2001). Khan, Hassan and Clement (2012) also observed that Lack of knowledge and skill by ICT teachers is the main hindrances to utilization of ICT in teaching. The authors further maintained that lack of teachers’ time to learn new skills, old ICT equipment, large classes, number of computers available for pupils’ use, lack of technical and pedagogical support and lack of collaboration among teachers were constraints to teachers’ confidence and competence in the use of ICT. Literature tends to highlight amongst others, the following as being the common obstacles to successful ICTintegration: lack of teacher confidence, lack of teacher competence, lack of effective training, resistance to change and negative attitudes, lack of technical support and lack of infrastructure (Korte & Hüsing, 2007). Ayodeji (2004) states that most of our secondary schools today do not have software for the computer to function. It appears some of the facilities are not sufficiently provided for teaching-learning process in the secondary schools. This might account for why teachers are not making use of them in their teaching (Ekundayo, 2009)
However, available literature on ICT have indicated that when appropriately used, ICT constitute potent tools for enriching traditional means of teaching and learning Government as a subject. More so, Government teachers in senior secondary schools in Awka zone of Anambra State still have problems utilizing ICT in teaching Government subject. Major among these problems is the incessant power failure followed by excess workload which does not give them enough time to prepare their lessons and teach them using ICT. A more serious problem is lack of access to ICT facilities to enhance their performance. This study therefore, is designed to determine the extent of utilization of information and communication technology in teaching
Government in senior secondary schools in Awka zone of Anambra State.
Statement of the Problem
Information and telecommunication technology (ICT) has revolutionized teaching and learning in advanced countries of the world. In order to key into the current trend in teaching and learning, the Governments of Nigeria have made several efforts towards utilization of ICT in teaching. The essence of these efforts at utilizing ICT in teaching is to enable Nigerian school system produce world class graduates at all levels of the education system who could compete favourably with graduates of other countries of the world in the labour market and other spheres of life.
Regrettably, studies have shown that ICTs are not considered central to the teaching and learning process especially in the developing countries Nigeria inclusive as most of the tests and examinations in schools follow traditional paper and pencil instead of the use of improved technology, on-line assessment, teleconferencing among other ICT uses for instruction. In spite of the role ICT plays in the educational development and by extension, the overall development of a country, there is still the problem of utilization of ICT in teaching in the Nigerian educational system. Despite the fact that ICT constitute a potent tool for enriching traditional means of teaching, teachers still experience numerous problems in their attempt to use ICT in teaching. Some sources indicate that teachers fear utilizing ICT in teaching because of lack of ICT skills, reluctance to change, ICT facilities are very costly to acquire and maintain, unavailability of ICT facilities, erratic power supply, gender reasons and school location barriers among other factors.
The researcher wonders whether this is the situation in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State where attempts have been made by the government to procure ICT facilities for use in teaching. Thus, the problem of this study put in question form is ‘what is the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State’. It also examined the available ICT resources in secondary schools in Awka education zone Anambra State with a view of finding out the level of availability, utilization and factors affecting utilization of these
ICT resources in teaching and learning in secondary schools in the education zone.
Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study was to determine the extent of utilization of computers in teaching and learning of Government in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State. Specifically, the study sought
- Determine the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
- Ascertain the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
- Ascertain the influence of gender in the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
- Ascertain the influence of school location on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
- Ascertain the influence of teacher’s qualification on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
- Ascertain the challenges against the utilization of ICT for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
Significance of the Study
This study on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education Zone of Anambra State has both theoretical and practical significance. The theoretical significance of this study is hinged on the Constructivists’ theory of Vygotsky (1978) and social learning theory by Bandura (1977). The social learning theory by Bandura states that learning takes place through imitation, identification, modeling and social interaction. This theory relates to the present study because teachers can use ICT in teaching by imitating other teachers who use it or by identifying with advanced countries of the world. ICT could be utilized in teaching by imitation of people that use it in teaching and the benefits therefrom.
On the other hand, Vygotsky’s constructivist theory believes that learning takes place by personal construction of the learner through active involvement in the pedagogy. Utilization of ICT in teaching by the Government as a subject teacher could bring about direct involvement of both the teachers and students in the teaching and learning
The practical significance of this study is that its findings would be beneficial to teachers, teacher training institutions, secondary school management board and students. The findings of this study when published would help the Government as a subject teacher to strive to utilize ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in this 21st century when the world is going technological and word class job skills like ICT compliance is needed. This would enable them to match pace with their counterparts abroad in curriculum interpretation for the production of world educational outcomes in the area of Government as a subject in secondary education.
The findings of this study when published would help teacher training institutions to incorporate ICT utilization-based courses that would prepare teachers towards utilization of ICT in teaching in secondary schools. This when done, would enhance ICT utilization capacities of teachers at secondary school level of education in Nigeria.
Secondary school management board would benefit from the findings of this study because it would enable them to see the challenges facing ICT utilization in teaching as to find the way forward. The management board of secondary schools would be able to inform the governments to procure ICT facilities and the components for effective utilization of ICTin teaching in secondary schools for production of functional graduates.
Finally, students would benefit from the findings of this study when published because if teachers effectively utilize ICT in teaching Government as a subject, the classroom would be lively and boredom free as most concepts in Government as a subject are abstract. This could also enhance students’ achievement and interest in the subject.
Scope of the Study
This study was carried out in Awka education zone of Anambra State. The study will be based on determining the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools in Awka education zone of Anambra State.
The content scope of the study was delimitated to determining the current ICT facilities available for teaching Government in senior secondary schools; Ascertaining the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools; Ascertaining the influence of gender in the utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools; Ascertaining the influence of school location on utilization of ICT in teaching Government in secondary schools; Ascertaining the influence of teacher’s qualifications on utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools and ascertaining the challenges against the utilization of ICT for teaching Government in senior secondary schools.
Only the Government teachers in Awka education zone were used for the study. Government teachers were used because they can provide information on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching Government in senior secondary schools being the people that engage in the actual utilization of any instructional media in the pedagogy. The Government teachers were able to provide information on availability of the ICT facilities for teaching Government in secondary schools.
The following research questions guided the study;
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on the influence of gender on the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on influence of school location on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on the influence of teacher’s qualification on utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone?
- What are the mean ratings of teachers on the challenges against the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses guided the study and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
H01: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the current ICT facilities available for teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
Ho2: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
|H03:||There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.|
|H04:||There is no significance difference in the mean ratings of teachers on the|
influence of teacher’s qualifications on the extent of utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H05: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female teachers on the challenges against the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone.
H06: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of urban and rural teachers on the challenges against the utilization of ICT in teaching of Government in senior secondary schools in Awka Education zone