Marketing Agricultural Product Through Farmer Co-Operative Societies In Enugu State
Records at the urban Division Co-operative Office show that out of thirty-eight farmer co-operative societies registered in urban area since 1976, only fifteen are functional to date. Base on thus observation the researcher under took the topic with a view to find out the major problem of F.C.S marketing in Imo State.
Based in the results of the percentage and the chi-square tests of the data obtained. It was found that unavailability of finance, lack of trained staff constitute problem to the effect of marketing of F.C.S.
Hence it was recommended that more efforts should be made to attract the richer members of the community to enroll as member patrons of co-operatives society.
In addition, farmers co-operative societies should sponsor the training of their leaders so as to ensure increased efficiency in marketing.
- Background of the Study
- The objective or Purpose of the Study
- Scope of the Study
- Significance of the Study
- Definition of Terms
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
2.0 Literature Review
- Definition and Meaning of Product
- The 4ps of Marketing Variable
- Patterns of Style of Marketing
- Quantities expected in marketing
- The nature of marketing co-operative
- Summary of literature review
- Population of the Study
- Sample and Sampling Produce
- Method of Data Analysis
- Instrument for the data collection
- Validation of the research instrument
- Reliability of the research instrument
- Method of administration the research instrument
4.0 Data Presentation and Results Summary
5.0 Discussion of Results/Findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
A BRIEF HISTORY OF CO-OPERATIVES
Helm (1986 p. 89) refers to co-operatives as voluntarily organization of economic units based on equality, carrying out allocated or self given economic objectives is in it’s nature neither capitalistic or socialistic but an neutral means of organization which can serve various aims and economic objective.
Ilo (1975 P. 102) defined a co-operative society as an association of person usually of limited means who have voluntarily joined together to achieve a common economic end through the formation of a democratically controlled business organization, making equitable contribution to the capital required and accepting a fair share of risk and benefit of the undertaking.
Marty (1986 P. 114) co-operative refer to working together for the same end ie for mutal benefit in the fields. Thus, a co-operative societies is a voluntarily association of person having mutal ownership and interest in providing them serves some of their needed service on a non-profit basis. It is usually organized as a legal cutities to accomplish an economic objectives through join participation of its members. Judging form the foregoing, the primary objective in a co-operative venture may be viewed as the advancement of members economic and a social interest. In the views of members economic and social interest.
In the views of Okereke (1986 P. 77) the co-operative movement is neither a social movement nor a welfare scheme to give sometimes to somebody in socio economic institutions.
Individual may come together from time to time to achieve certain aims in co-operative with other especially in most tribal societies, may be fulfill certain temporary needs.
Helm 91986 P. 102) observed that the history organized co-operative business of more permanent nature may be traced to the economic social and political changes that occurred in Europe, especially during the revolution.
Prior to this time, pleasant farmer were exploited by money lenders to the extent that they were virtually farmering for money lenders. This situation led to social unrest and insecurity which provided a good atmosphere for a new social order and social change.
The actual formation of co-operative Helm (1986 P. 48) was said to have emanated from the activities of dedicated philanthropist, politicians church men and civil servants such as Robert own and Dr. William King, in England, and Charles fourier, wins Diane and Charles Gide in France.
Even though the formation of pionner co-operative societies may be traced to the activities of these individuals of these individuals, dating as far back as 1771, the spread of co-operative movement the world over in linked with the activities of the Rodchdale pionner in 1844.
Agro-base co-operative movement hard it’s origin mainly in Germany in 1818. Since then it has diversified and spread it almost all the work and crarmy of the world and Nigeria is not left out in it’s spread.
CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT: THE NIGERIA
The Rochdale type of co-operative came into existence in Nigeria in 1935 even though Aru (1983 P. 113) has said that co-operative as a form of self help organization is traditional and indigenous to Nigeria.
Taking a look at the Nigeria situation, Abdukahi (1986 P. 14) has it that the activities of Europeans, living in parts of the western Nigeria at the end of the first world war introduced the initial traces of organized co-operative when these European formed consumers societies to carter for their own needs. Though thus later fade away, in 1926, the cocoa farmers in western Nigeria were said to have been organized and encourage to sell then cocoa product collectively. This according to Adbullahi led to the formation of cocoa producer co-operative societies and making unions which were wide spread in the southern Nigeria.
This situation led the colonial government to send Mr. C.F. Strif land on a tour of India to study the India Co-operative Movement and look for possibilities of introducing the same to Nigeria. Strit land’s reports and recommendation were favourable to the formation of co-operatives in Nigeria and this encourage the colonial government to appoint a Registrar designate for co-operatives, major E.F.C Halg and to send for training overseas.
Having studied and modified the Indian co-operative societies law for use in Nigeria.
At the end of this training, the task facing Haig were:
- How to re-organize the cocoa farmer societies and marketing unions
- How to bring it under the protection of the law
This brought about the co-operative societies ordinance (law No 39 of 1935) which came into force on 6th February, 1936.
According to Abdullahi (1987 P. 7) the pionner co-operative societies registered under this law was the abedum co-operative product marketing society limited, abedum, near Ibadan in 1937 with late Chief Obisean as President, in 1978 and in the words Adeyeye (1978 P. 42) there are total 101 591 primary co-operative societies in Nigeria with a total membership of 589, 775, individual.
DEVELOPMENT OF CO-OPERATIVE IN ENUGU STATE
Onwe (1986 P. 18) hard it that the advent of the co-operative in Enugu State may be traced to the formation and registration of P.W.P Enugu Co-operative thrift and loan society limited, in 1990. The co-operative scene in Enugu State has witnessed a great increased both in number and complexity to the extent that Onwe (1986 P. 56). Rostulated that there were a total of 1237 co-operative societies most of which were farmers multi-purpose co-operative societies (F.M.C.S)
Co-operative awareness has increased in t he state to the extent that practically all communities in Enugu State now have at least a co-operative society. There is also the establishment of financial institutions such as co-operative and Commerce Bank Limited, Nigeria Agricultural and Co-operative Bank Limited (ACB) to carter for financial interest of co-operative societies in the state.
Moreover, recorded in Enugu State Co-operative Office tends to show that in September 1975 ten people from different town in the Local Government Area. Came together from Enugu State Divisional Co-operative councils (ENSDCC) limited.
This was followed by a formal application on 30th September 1975 to the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (now called Ministry of Commerce and Industry) at Enugu State for registration, with the approval of thus application, the Enugu State Divisional Co-operative Council Limited came into existence in official circles on 26th May, 1976. To date, there are thirty-eight registered co-operative societies in Enugu State.
PROINCIPLE OF CO-OPERATIVE
One common feature of co-operative the world over may be found in the pioneering principle of co-operative advanced by the Rochdale Pionners in 1844. These includes:
- Open and voluntary membership
- Democratic management
- Limited interest in share
- Patronage rebate
- Goods be sold at current market prices and for cash only
- Neutrality in race, religion and politic
- Sales of pure adulterated goods
- Continuous education of members Helm (1986).
The fact that these principles have been x rayed and modified to suit particular co-operative societies does not regrate to fact that they provide the guide and the frame work for the formation and operation of pionner co-operative societies the world over. The Farmers Co-Operative Society (FCS).
The farmer co-operative societies may be views as co-operative among individual activities. They may engage in the production of crops or annuals for sell. They may solely operate to produces and distribute or to sell agricultural products or impacts to farmers.
This is slightly different from the farmers multi-purpose co-operative society (F.M.C.S) which mainly combine marketing agricultural and other marketing variables. These of course implies that marketing of agricultural product farmers co-operative society are basically similar.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to find out great impact of marketing agricultural produce through farmers co-operative societies, on view which has helped the marketing practitioners in their daily transactions. Basically every producer or manufacturer has his ultimate aim at which he sells his produces. This is the reason why the impact of co-operative societies are normally considered through the marketing of agricultural produces.
Beside, the study helps us to know when, what, where, and when to market agricultural produce at a convenient time.
Moreover, it helps is to determine the degree and nature of the effect marketing agricultural produce through farmer co-operative societies.
1.3 SCOPE OF AND STUDY
This study is to be carried out to identify the major management problem among the thirty-eight (38) farmers co-operative societies in Enugu State.
It is not intended to deal on the formation of co-operative societies or the problem of other co-operative societies on the problem of other co-operative without agricultural basis.
Due to an indication of major management problem (F.M.C.S) in Enugu State. It is also limited only sampling F.C.S. in Enugu State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is meant to aid co-operators gain more knowledge of what is expected of them fro the success of this co-operative enterprises by:
- Determining the extent to which these problems constitute a hindrance to the efficiency of societies.
- Determine same of the basic management flows that encountered in the marketing of agricultural produce through farmers co-operative society.
- Seeking avenues through which such problems can be limited.
- Finally, based on the findings of the study recommend measure by which the inefficiency or marketing should be rectified for the realization of the societies objectives.
Onwe (1986) has observed that co-operatives as away of rulling people resource together for higher economic achievement and for desirable. This especially true of small scale farmers who as Abdullahi (1980), said can solve most of their problem through co-operative by obtaining the benefits of large scale production, marketing, credit and other impacts. This study want to ameliorate the bottle necks preventing farmers co-operative from realizing benefits.
1.5 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to investigate the impacts of co-operative societies in the marketing of agricultural produce in view of Enugu State Case of Study. In researching the problem, the researcher encountered the following constraints which are:-
The researcher hand to divide the little time available to him and between the classroom work and the research. This was a great limitation of the study.
This is another factor that hindered effective study of this research work, the researcher found out the actual cost of mining around for material for the study and collection of data were above what was estimated and it was a great limitation.
Finally, there was problem of insufficient work originally done as it concerns that company. In addition was also the problem of non responses from some respondents who rejected out rightly the questionnaire from the researchment on to seek for interest respondents though money and time was pent in the process.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A product is anything (tangible/mtangible) presented to a target market or marketed to satisfy a want or need. It may be a person, place, an organization an idea, a goods or services offered to a target market. Hence product is taken up or studies first before the other mixes because the impression both potential customers have a given product or service effective the marketing or acceptance of the product or service among customers and invariably, thus impression also effect the development of the other P’s (Dr K.N.L. Nkem).
Price is the value placed on what is exchanged to gain satisfaction or utility Philip Kolter (1997). It is expressed in different term of different exchange. Such as fare, fees, charges, tuition, rents, premiums, dues, interest, fine, cheque, deposit, commission taxes and so forth. It concept is to qualify and express the value of item in a market exchange.
Promotion have refer to all forms of information and persuasion aimed at influencing a target audience. The principal method of marketing promotion are advertising personal selling, sales promotion and public relation. The objective of promotion is to make potential buyers more favourably disposed toward the firm’s offering by communicating to the actual buyer about the benefits and values of a product.
Place or distribution in his content is refers as a major factors in developing services, marketing strategy because of inseparability of service from the producers.
Place or distribution in marketing could be equally mean, the movement of goods from the area of manufacturing to that of consumption.
A market is an aggregate of people who as individual or organization have need for produce in a production class and who have the ability willingness and authority to purchase such product.
This is the combination of activities involving price, product, place and promotion that a company or firm undertakes in order to provide satisfaction to consumer in a given market at a given period of time.