In statistics, determination of sample size to be used for research has generated a lot of controversy. Sample size and power estimation is an important concern for researchers undertaking research projects but most often than not they have been misunderstood or ignored completely.
What margin of error can you accept?
What is sample size?
According to inferential and descriptive statistics, sample size of any population is a subset or a smaller unit of the main population on which a research is to be carried out. For the outcome of any research about a population to be generalized, the sample size has to be able to explain the characteristics of the main population under study. In order to enhance the precision of our survey or research, some software has been developed to assist researchers at all level in determining the right sample size to be used when studying any population. Sample size calculation, when done manually can be achieved but it can be nearly impossible when confronted with large population.
Manually calculating the sample size of a large population can be hectic and conclusions reached on those sample size calculated manually cannot be confidently generalized across the population under study. But with the help of these softwares, researchers can determine the following;
i) The power of the test
ii) The sample size suitable for your experiment/survey
Within little or no time and the interesting part is that generalizations reached on these sample size can confidently be generalized across the population.
5 INCREDIBLE SOFTWARES THAT ASSIST IN SAMPLE SIZE AND POWER CALCULATION
These softwares help to determine the following;
- PROJECTCHAMPIONZ TARO YAMANE SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATOR
This is a sleek innovation brought about by projectchampionz developers to eliminate the stress of calculating sample size the manual way using Taro Yamane Sample Size Formular. The software is 100% accurate, reliable and fast!
To Start Using this Awesome Software, Click the Button Below:
- POWER AND SAMPLE SIZE (PASS) SOFTWARE:
As the name implies, the power and sample size calculator/software is a unique software that helps to calculate the power and sample size of a research/survey.
Most times, researchers make the mistake of rejecting a true null hypothesis (Ho). The power of the test needs to be ascertained as a guide in knowing if the research is making the right decision i.e. rejecting a null hypothesis that is actually false and accepting its alternative or vice-versa.
This unique software helps in determining if the research is judge “powerful” by placing it on a probability scale of 0 to 1. A value close to 1 indicates a very powerful research or a research that rejected the hypothesis to be rejected and accepts the one that should be accepted. A value close to 0 indicate a weak research or survey whose generalization or recommendations may be false.
For your research/survey to be powerful, then the software should be called upon in every research that is being embarked upon.
Also, before every research should be carried out, the exact sample size should be focused on. Under or over estimating sample size of any population may yield non-powerful or weak results. This software helps to ascertain the actual sample size to be used and hence, make the test powerful.
This Software can be gotten at http://ncss.com/software/pass
STEPS TO COMPLETE A SAMPLE SIZE OR POWERFUL CALCULATION IN PASS SOFTWARE
The steps to complete a sample size or power calculation in PASS software are as follows;
- Selected and load a procedure using the PASS home window. This can be done using the navigation tree or by entering a search keyword. Check on a procedure button in the main display areas to load the procedure
- Input the analysis parameters on the procedure window.
- Click the calculate button on the procedure window to perform the calculation and view the results in the output window.
- THE ROASOFT SAMPLE CALCULATOR:
The Raosoft sample calculator is basically a software that primarily calculates or generates the sample size of a research or survey.
Estimating a sample size for a survey, project or research can be confusing and frustrating, as a result, the Raosoft sample size calculator offers both sample size confidence interval calculation to minimize these frustrations encountered during research.
This software takes into account the margin of error, the confidence level and response distribution. It also offers to show viz-a-viz what the margin of error would be like with various sample sizes. sample size calculators
5% is a common choice
The margin of error is the amount of error that you can tolerate. If 90% of respondents answer yes, while 10% answer no, you may be able to tolerate a larger amount of error than if the respondents are split 50-50 or 45-55. Lower margin of error requires a larger sample size.
Typical choices are 90%, 95%, or 99%
The confidence level is the amount of uncertainty you can tolerate. Suppose that you have 20 yes-no questions in your survey. With a confidence level of 95%, you would expect that for one of the questions (1 in 20), the percentage of people who answer yes would be more than the margin of error away from the true answer. The true answer is the percentage you would get if you exhaustively interviewed everyone. Higher confidence level requires a larger sample size.
If you don’t know, use 20000
How many people are there to choose your random sample from? The sample size doesn’t change much for populations larger than 20,000.
Leave this as 50%
For each question, what do you expect the results will be? If the sample is skewed highly one way or the other,the population probably is, too. If you don’t know, use 50%, which gives the largest sample size. See below under More information if this is confusing.
This Software can be gotten at www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html
4. POWER AND SAMPLE SIZE CALCULATOR
This software is a unique software used to calculate the power and the sample size of any survey. It is mostly used in domains such as biology, bio-statistics, the social Sciences, agriculture and medicine.
This software can be used for studies with dichotomous continues or survival response measures. This is a handle tool meant for students, professionals and researchers with at least minimal statistical knowledge. A cardinal advantage of the PS: power and sample size calculator is that it can be used in various study designs like T-test, regression, design and analysis of experiment, analysis of variance, correlation and revival test. Also, this software can generate graphs that make it less stressful to analyze the relationship between the power of the survey, sample size and the detectable alternative hypothesis. sample size calculators,
This software can be gotten at powerandsample size.com
- THE SURVEY SYSTEM SURVEY
This has features which enables a researcher to conduct sophisticated surveys and produce professional report. The survey system can record any typed of answer and even records respondent actual voice with the help of VOICE CAPTURE SURVEY MOUDLE.
This software helps to guide respondent through correct questions, helps to modify questions to generate or yield more accurate data and equally check the validity of answers given. This software is mostly useful to researchers involved in field survey or research. This survey software also helps researchers in creating unique survey and helps to distribute researchers’ questionnaires adequately online for adequate data.
This software is the most complete software package available for working with survey questionnaires.
This software can be gotten at www.surveysystem.com
POWER AND PRECISION SOFTWARE
The power and precision was created by bio-stat Inc. the software helps to ascertain the power of a test or it helps researchers in making decisions i.e. rejecting false null hypothesis. It basically helps to increase the precision of a research or survey. The more precise the survey/research is most professional the work will be. Most times, researchers make the mistake of accepting the false null hypothesis which at the end of the day can lead to false recommendations. In general, the power precision software as the name depicts, helps to increase the precision/power of a survey. sample size calculators,calculator,
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This software can be gotten at www.power-analysis.com