Effect of total quality management (tqm) on manufacturing sector’s performance in nigeria. (a case study of cadbury nigeria plc)

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Effect of total quality management (tqm) on manufacturing sector’s performance in nigeria. (a case study of cadbury nigeria plc)


This study is designed to determine the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM) on manufacturing sector’s performance in Nigeria, using Cadbury Nigeria Plc, As A Case Study. This topic came into existence as a result of enhances the quality of goods and services that will enhances consumer patronage and reduce competitive disadvantage.

Ineffective quality management system of operation has been creating challenges to the operations of most Nigerian manufacturing firms. The objective of this study is to determine wether Total Quality Management have effetc on the known wether the organization has increase in sales in other to achieve its Total Quality Management (TQM) and also enable to determine organizaitonal outputs on return on the investment in an organization.

The hypothesis formulated is to research on the relationship between training or development and employee skill, relationship between Total Quality Management and organizational performance and relationship between Total Quality Management and career propsects.

A survey research design is used for this research of which selected samples are drawn for the intensive study of the characteristics of the population.

A total number of (100) one hundred respondents have been selected from the population of the study in which (68) sixty eight respondents completed and returned theirs.

The finding reveals that Total Quality Management (TQM) play an important role in an organization performance using Cadbury Nigeria Plc as a case study.

It is therefore recommeded that organization should concencentrate on and put in place an effective method of developing quality of management in manufacturing sectors that would improve and develop the organization in other to adapt to the dynamic changes in its enviroment and thereby meets its goals.



Title i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of content v



1.1 Background of the study 1 – 4

1.2 Statement of the problem 4 – 6

1.3 Objectives of study 7

1.4 Significance of study 8

1.5 Research questions 8 – 9 1.6 Research hypotheses 9

1.7 Methodology 9 – 10

1.8 Limitation of work 10

1.9 Definition of terms 10 – 13



2.0 Theoretical framework and models 14 – 18

2.1 Implementation of total quality management

[TQM] programme 18 – 22

2.2 Characteristics of TQM strategy/policy 22 – 56

2.3 Quality in theory and practice 25 – 29

2.4 Summary of total quality management [TQM] 30 – 33

2.5 Historical background of Cadbury’s Nigeria plc 33 – 36



3.0 Introduction 37

3.1 Restatement of research questions 38

3.2 Research hypotheses 38

3.3 Research design 39

3.4 Characteristics of the study 39 – 40

3.5 Sample and sampling techniques 40

3.6 Research instrument and instrumentation[data collection instrument] 40

3.7 Validation of research instruments 40 – 41

3.8 Method of data analysis 41 – 42

3.9 Limitation of research method used 42



4.0 Introduction 43

4.1 Analysis of section A 44– 61

4.2 Significant Test 62 –63

4.3 Hypothesis one result 63 – 65

4.4 Conclusion of the analysis 65



5.0 Introdution 66 – 67

5.1 Conclusion 68 – 70

5.2 Recommendation 70 – 71

Bibliography 72 – 73

Questionnaire 74 – 78



1.1 Background of the study

The success of any organization is completely determined by the quality of services that they produce, especially in competitive market place, this therefore bring the relevance of the ideology and practice of Total Quality Management(TQM) into place. Most organizations still believes that the traditional quality control techniques and the way they have always been is still the best and resolve their quality problems, but this however is wrong. Employing move inspectors developing correction repairs and re-work teams doesn’t promote quality. Traditionally, quality has been seen as the responsibility of quality control (QC) department and it has still not been recognized in some organization that many quality problems originate in the marketing , sales service and administrative areas.

Total Quality Management (TQM) is move than shifting the responsibility of problems from the customer to the produces. It requires an approach, which must first be implemented if the rewards are to be realized. Today’s business environment is such that managers must plan to maintain a hold on market share. If definitions are needed, Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach to improving the competitiveness and flexibility of the whole organization.

It can be said to be the way of planning, organizing and understanding each activity involving each individual at each level. Total Quality Management (TQM) is also a way of riding peoples lives of wasted effort by involving everyone in the process of improvement, increasing the effectiveness of work so that results are achieved in less time.

The methods and techniques used in Total Quality Management (TQM) can be placed through any organization. They are equally in Marketing, health care, education and hospitality industries. The impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on an organization is first to ensure that the management adopts a strategic overview of quality. The approach must focus on developing a problem prevention mentality, but it is easy to underestimate the effort that is required to change approaches.

Many people will need to undergo a complete change of mind to their institution, which rushes into the inspection mode to solve quality problems. The correct mind set may be achieved by working at the sorts of barriers that exists in the key arrears. Staffs will need to be trained and shown how to relocate their time and energy to studying their process in teams, searching for cause to problems and correcting the causes, not the symptoms for once and for all. This will require of management a positive initiative to promote the night first time approach to work situations. Through process improvement teams, which will need to be set up, these actions will reduce naturally the inspection-rejection syndrome.

If things are done correctly first time around, the usual problems that create the need for inspection for failure will disappear.

Total Quality Management (TQM) strategy is a business management strategy that sees the organizational customers and create as the key to organizational success. However, some Nigerian Companies define quality by engineering standards. Effective Total Quality Management (TQM) Strategy entails that the product quality must go beyond acceptability for a given price range. It must involve every staff in the organization and in every department. It express the conviction that in order to improve quality, the organization must regularly conduct surveys most from its customers (Internal and External customers) to evaluate its quality improvement programmes and strategies. Total Quality Management (TQM) strategist in Nigeria organization should measure performance against customers standard not determined by the company’s quality engineers. However, Nigerian firms that do not practice Total Quality Management (TQM) might experience internal and external loss of faith by the organizations senior staffs on each other and low morale.

Finally, the ideology of Total Quality Management (TQM), emphasis on the improvement of product quality and service delivery. Managers improve durability and enhance a product passes through its lifecycle managers also strive to speed delivery and improve other services to keep their brands (products) competitive.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

It is unlikely that all Nigerian firms will behave so differently towards their clients and customers that they will survive in a competitive business today, and that they must incorporate that listening into their strategies planning processes through TQM concepts and strategies.

Customer satisfactions are linked closely to product and service quality. Therefore, quality improvement programs normally increase profitability.

The well known profit impact of marketing studies show a high correlation between relative product quality and profitability.

Nigerian firms today have no choice but to adopt TQM. If they want to stay In business, let alone be profitable Quality is best assurance of customer, strongest defense against competition and the only path to sustained company growth and earnings.

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