Effect of cations on gastric acid secretion in rats.

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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of content


Chapter 1


1:1 Introduction

1:2 Background of the Study

1:3 Statements of Problems

1:4 Objectives of the Study

1:5 Research Question

1:6 Study of the Hypothesis

1:7 Significance of the Study

1:8 Justification of the Study

1:9 Scope of the Study

1:10 Definition of Terms


Chapter 2

Literature Review

2:0 Introduction

2:1 Conceptual Clarification

2:2 Theoretical Framework

2:3 Literatures on the Subject Matter


Chapter 3

Research Methodology

3:0 Area of Study

3:1 Source of Data

3:2 Sampling Techniques

3:3 Method Data Collection

3:4 Method of Data Analysis

3:5 Reliability of Instrument

3:6 Validity of Instrument

3:7 Limitations of the Study


Chapter 4

Data Analysis

4:0 Introduction

4:1 Finding of the Study

4:2 Discussion of the Study

4:3 Summary


Chapter 5

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5:0 Summary of Findings

5:1 Conclusion

5:2 Recommendations

5:3 Proposal for Further Studies


Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl). The acid plays a key role in digestion of proteins, by activating digestive enzymes, and making ingested proteins unravel so that digestive enzymes break down the long chains of amino acids. Gastric acid is produced by cells in the lining of the stomach, which are coupled in feedback systems to increase acid production when needed. Other cells in the stomach produce bicarbonate, a base, to buffer the fluid, ensuring that it does not become too acidic. These cells also produce mucus, which forms a viscous physical barrier to prevent gastric acid from damaging the stomach. The pancreas further produces large amounts of bicarbonate and secretes bicarbonate through the pancreatic duct to the duodenum to completely neutralize any gastric acid that passes further down into the digestive tract.

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