THE IMPACT OF UNEMPLOYMENT ON CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES IN CROSS RIVER STATE
This research work is centered on the impact of unemployment on criminal activities in Niger Delta region of Nigeria using Cross River State as a case study. The study adopted the survey research design. A total of 450 research subjects were drawn from the target population using the stratified and random sampling technique. Frequency counts, simple percentage and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data and test the hypotheses. Findings from the research showed that unemployment has a significant impact on criminal activities in Cross River State. It also revealed that poverty has a significant impact on criminal activities in Cross River State. The study therefore recommended government’s intervention towards job creation to enable reduction in unemployment rate in the state which has eventual result in crime reduction.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Certification – – – – – – – – – i
Dedication – – – – – – – – – ii
Acknowledgements – – – – – – – iii
Abstract – – – – – – – – – – iv
Table of Contents – – – – – – – – v
List of Tables
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUTION
1.1 The Background to the Study – – – – – 1
1.2 Statement of Problem – – – – – – 8
1.3 Objectives of the Study – – – – – – 13
1.4 Research Hypotheses – – – – – – 15
1.5 Significance of the Study – – – – – – 14
1.6 Scope of the study – – – – – – – 16
1.7 Definition of Terms – – – – – – – 16
1.8 Organization of the Study – – – – – 18
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Literature Review – – – – – – – 20
2.1.1 An Overview of Unemployment – – – -2.1.2 Types of Unemployment – – – – –
18.104.22.168 Frictional Unemployment – – – – 56
22.214.171.124 Structural Unemployment – – – – –
126.96.36.199 Cyclical Unemployment – – – – 65
2.1.3 Unemployment in Nigeria – – – – – – – – – 69
2.1.4 Causes of unemployment in Nigeria
188.8.131.52 Rapid Rural-Urban Migration
184.108.40.206 Rapid population Growth
220.127.116.11 Inappropriate school curricula
18.104.22.168 Rapid expansion of the educational sector
2.1.5 Effect of unemployment in Nigeria
2.2 Unemployment, Criminal activities and the Niger delta
2.2.1 Crisis and its implication on national development, unemployment and unemployment in the Niger delta
2.2.2 Criminal activities in the niger delta
2.2.3 The Niger delta crisis and its implication on national development
2.3 Empirical Literature
2.4 Theoretical Framework
2.4.1 Strain Theory of Crime
2.4.2 Social Learning Theory
2.4.3 The Social Disorganization Theory of Crime
2.4.4 The Frustration-Aggression Theory
2.5 Summary of Review and Research Gap
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design – – – – – – – 85
3.2 Sources of data collection and justification – – –
3.3 Model specification – – – – – – 91
3.4 Scope and area of study – – – – – – –
3.5 Limitations of the study – – – – 93
3.6 Population sample- – – – – – 97
3.7 Sampling technique and sampling size
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.1 Data presentation – – – – – –
4.2 Test of hypotheses- – – – – – –
4.3 Discussion of Findings – – – – – –
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary – – – – – – – – – 112
5.2 Policy Recommendations – – – – – – 113
5.3 Conclusion – – – – – – – – 116
References – – – – – – – – 118
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: distributed and returned questionnaires — —
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by gender
Table 3: Distribution of Respondents by qualification– — —
Table 4: Is there high crime rate in your area? ——
Table 5: Are these crime actors graduates?–
Table 6: Are the youths involved? —
Table 7: Is their economic status high? — —
Table 8: Do these crime actors have a legal source of livelihood? —
Table 9: Does unemployment affect crime rate? —
Table 10: Do the employed youths get highly involved?
Table 11: Is the rate of poverty high in your area? –
Table 12: Do you think poverty affects crime rate? —
1.1 Background of the Study
Crime is one major problem, and a burning issue in which every society particularly a developing one is faced with. Nigeria as a developing country faces her own share of social, political, economic and cultural problems at different regions which have in no small measure affected the well-being of the populace. One major cause universally agreed is the rising or increasing nature of unemployment.
It is commonly observed for most countries that unemployment and crime rates are positively correlated, but it is much more unclear whether the relationship means that unemployment causes crime, crime causes unemployment, or other factors cause either or both. In other words, the sign of the correlation is clear but the direction of the causality is not. One direction of the causality, unemployment affects crime, has received wide attention in the literature, but the reverse one has been largely neglected (Calro – Armengo and Yves Zenous, 2003).
The theoretical underpinning of the causality notion was developed some thirty years ago by Becker (1968), Stigler (1970) and Ehrlich (1973) among others. In Ehrlich’s model, individuals divide their time between legal activities and risky illegal activities. If legal income opportunities become scarce relative to potentials gains from crime, the model predicts that crime will become more frequent. Increased unemployment could be such factor.
Government the world over try to curb crime rates and if possible, eradicate crime. Similarly, unemployment, an economic disease, is a problem which government tries to reduce. It is noteworthy that wherever there is unemployment, especially at a high rate, there is a tendency for crime rate to increase dramatically this is because people are easily lured or compelled to criminal tendencies in the face of frustrations, poverty and loss of hope in earning a decent living (Egunjobi, 2003). According to Becker’s economic theory of crime, unemployed people are deprived of legal income and thus, they tend to derive some income from illegal activities. Many models of crime suggest that the unemployed and individuals with low wages face strong urge to commit crime.
The Niger Delta region particularly Cross River State is severely hit by criminal activities and unemployment despite the abundant human and natural resources available in the region, a situation World Bank describes as unemployment in the midst of plenty (World Bank, 1996). The rise in criminal activities among youths in the Niger Delta region has been fuelled by extreme poverty and underdevelopment, discontent with the international oil companies, oil spillage, environmental damage and corruption by government officials which ensure little development reaches the host communities. Unemployment on the other hand is evident in the Niger Delta as Eboh (2009) opined that over 60% of the youths in the region are unemployed. The streets are littered with youth hawkers who ordinarily would have found gainful employment in some enterprises (Okafor, 2011).
It is upon this background that this research work is intended to ask the following questions:
To what extent does unemployment affect criminal activities in Niger Delta region particularly Cross River State?
How can the government reduce unemployment rate in the region with eventual reduction in criminal activities in the region?
How can the vast natural resources of the Niger Delta region be managed to fully benefit the communities.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The Niger Delta region which comprises seven states; Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Rivers and Ondo, has a huge oil and gas deposits which currently amount for more than 80% of the nation’s crude extraction and more than 70% of revenue to service the nation’s economy. The region is blessed with vast and huge natural resources which contribute to about 80% of the nation’s budget and about 70% of her GDP. Despite these huge potentials, the region is littered with unemployed youths as Eboh (2009) states that about 60% of Niger Delta youths unemployed.
In a bid to harnessing, controlling and utilizing the resources of the regions to benefits the indigenes, the youths, young adults and even a good number of child have resolved to restive measures which have been evident in political thuggery, illegal oil bunkering, firearms business, kidnapping, piracy, militancy and other social vices which are dangers to the stability of democracy in Nigeria (Okafor, 2011).
The arm insurgency in the region traces its roots to a perceived sense of neglects by both oil companies and national government. Despite its strategic and economic significance, human development indices for the Niger Delta region are starkly behind national averages. Furthermore, the pollution resulting from oil and gas prospecting have affected indigenous sources of livelihood like fishing and brought home disease, malnutrition and high fatality rate beside serious environmental repercussion. Also, poverty remains endemic despite the billion flowing into the national coffers. Poverty however exacts and inevitable social toll, and for an impoverished people, crime is often and easy step from deprivation.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to access the impact of unemployment on criminal activities in Cross River State.
Specific objectives are:
(1) To examine the extent in which unemployment rate impact on criminal activities in Cross River State.
(2) To access the relationship that exists between unemployment and poverty in Cross River State.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
In line with the stated objectives, the following hypotheses will be tested;
H0: Unemployment has no significant impact on criminal activities in Cross River State.
H0: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and poverty in Cross River State.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is significant as it will take an in-depth analysis into the root causes of the Niger Delta crisis as it investigates various criminal activities and their effect on the region. The finding of the study will prove an insight into what crimes are really committed on the region and also reveal what effect they have on the region. Also, this study will contribute in no small way to the literature in this area of study. Finally, governments will through this work understand the basic problems retarding the growth of the region thus, proffer possible solutions
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study concentrates its investigation on the Niger Delta region in investigating the impact of unemployment on criminal activities in Cross River State. The delimitation is made so as to enable the researcher focus the search light on Cross River State area of the Niger Delta region.
1.7 Definition of Terms
(i) Crime: Crime can be defined as an act that violate the law of the society or serious offence against the law of the society for which there is severe punishment by law.
(ii) Criminal Activities: Criminal activities are referred to as those activities that violate the law of the society and are punishable under the law.
(iii) Sustainable Development: This is described as that development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present generations without compromising the ability to meet the need of future generation.
(iv) Youth Restiveness: This is referred to as the agitation by youth in the Niger Delta region.
(v) Kidnapping: This is refers to the seizure of individuals by other groups for purpose of receiving ransom on their release.
(vi) Oil Exploitation: This is the process that involves the drilling and the refining of crude oil by the oil companies.
(vii) Niger Delta Region: This is the littoral region in Nigeria located in the Atlantic coast, transverse by Delta and its tributaries. The region comprises seven states of Akwa Ibom, Bayelsa, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Rivers and Ondo states.
(viii) Unemployment: This is a situation in which those willing and able to work do not find any, at the prevailing wage rate.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study has five chapters. Chapter one is the introduction. Chapter two presents literature review on various concepts; crime and unemployment, the Niger Delta crisis and also the theoretical framework. Chapter three focuses on model specification and research methodology. Chapter four deals with data presentation and analysis of data and finally, chapter five provides summary of major findings, recommendation and suggestion for further research are also made and the concluding remarks.