This study investigated the biology teachers' state of readiness for integrating ICT in teaching and learning in selected schools in Kososfe Local Government Area, Lagos state. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for this study. The population for this study comprised all teachers and Senior Secondary School Students (male and female) in Kosofe Local Government Area, Lagos state. A simple random sampling technique was used in arriving at selection of Three hundred Senior Secondary School Students and teachers in Senior Secondary Schools in Kosofe Local Government in Lagos State formed the sample for this study. Specifically, four secondary schools were selected from Kosofe Local Government, Lagos State. Forty students and ten teachers were randomly selected from each of the schools resulting to two hundred students and teachers. Ten teachers will be sampled in each school making the total number of teachers sampled to be forty while forty students were sampled in each school making the total number of students sampled to be one hundred and sixty students. Respondents were randomly selected for the study using simple random sampling technique. Two self- structured questionnaire (Teachers' and students' questionnaires) of 38 items was used to collect information from the students and teachers after its validity and reliability were determined. Three research questions were posited for this study and all the research questions were significant. The study revealed the following results: biology teachers' awareness, competence and knowledge of integrating ICT influence their teaching experience among students in selected schools in Lagos state. In the light of the study's results, the researchers presented a number of recommendations and proposals the most important of which are: More enlightenment and campaigns should be organized by Ministry of education and Non -governmental organizations for secondary school teachers on the importance of the use of ICT in teaching and learning. Moreover, seminars and media can play an important role in making teachers and students aware of the immense contribution of ICT to teaching and learning. School administrators should play a primary role in promoting awareness of importance of the use of ICT in teaching and learning. They can promote such awareness by ensuring that teachers teacher with the aid ICT at all times and make the ICT resources available. Ministry of education should ensure that close monitoring is given to teachers' performance on the effective use of these ICT materials in classrooms. Federal and State Government, the Ministry of Education and policy makers Should come up policies that would ensure that schools make use of ICT in classroom teaching.
Background of Study
Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are making dynamic changes in society. They are influencing all aspects of life. The influences are felt more and more at schools (Fisseha, 2011). Because ICTs provide both students and teachers with more opportunities in adapting learning and teaching to individual needs, society is, forcing schools aptly respond to this technical innovation (Fisseha, 2011). The potentials of ICTs is in increasing access and improving relevance and quality of education in developing countries (Tinio, 2002). ICTs greatly facilitate the acquisition and absorption of knowledge, offering developing countries unprecedented opportunities to enhance educational systems, improve policy formulation and execution, and widen the range of opportunities for business and the poor (Tinio, 2002). One of the greatest hardships endured by the poor, and by many others, who live in the poorest countries, in their sense of isolation, and ICTs can open access to knowledge in ways unimaginable not long ago (Fisseha, 2011).
Information Communication Technology (ICT) refers to the diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate create, disseminate, store and manage information. These technologies include computers, the internet, broad casting technologies radio TV and telephone.
Science educator and school science teacher have been continuously looking for ways to create environment for active learning - in which, student' attention is captured and their mind are engaged (Lin et al, 2001),
After the advent of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) teaching and learning process has virtually got revolutionized globally. ICT is now playing an important role for the dissemination of sustainable quality education worldwide.
ICTs are making dynamic changes in the society. They are influencing all aspect of life. The influences are felt more and more at schools. Because ICTs provide both student and teachers with more opportunities in adapting learning and teaching to individual needs, society is, forcing school aptly respond to technical innovation.
The uses of ICT is making major differences in the learning of students and teaching approaches. Schools in the Western World invested a lot for ICT infrastructures over the last 20 years, and students use computers more often and for a much larger range of applications (Volman, 2005). Several studies reveal that students using ICT facilities mostly show higher learning gains than those who do not use.
Africa have witness the development of ICTs in various sectors over the last decade including education. The change from teacher-centered education system to leaner centered education the world over in the past few years contributes to the use of ICTs in education.
The potential of ICT in secondary biology teaching is enormous, although it is fairly daunting to newcomers (Peat And Fernandez, 2002). Computer learning packages and the web can offer a variety of opportunities for learning, ranging from non-interactive content to highly interactive student- centered learning experience. Biology teaching has radically changed with ICT (Lombard, 2008).
The uses of ICT is making major differences in the learning of student of student and teaching approaches. Furthermore, the use of ICTs in education also shifts the learning approaches. As put by Bransford, Brown, and Cocking, (1999) Cited in Volman (2005), there is a common belief that the use of ICTs in education contributes to a more constructivist learning and an increase in activity and greater responsibility of students. This limits the role of the teacher to supporting, advising, and coaching student rather than merely transmitting knowledge.
The idea that teaching and learning can successfully take place through the application of electronic communication facilities between teachers and students is one which had generated, sometimes, hope and dismay and at other times, excitement and fear. Hope that many more learners can be reached at a more convenient pace that had erstwhile been the case, dismay that the infrastructures necessary for deploying an effective ICT platform is lacking in low-income countries like Nigeria (Olakulehin, 2007).
Teachers' reluctance to adopt innovation need to be seen in the context of existing technology and commitments, Fullen (1989) cited in Watson (2001) states the change for improvement can happen at schools if teachers understand themselves and understood by others. Teachers attitude play an important role in the teaching-learning process that utilizes computers and internet connections although teachers attitude towards the use of technologies is vital, many observation reveal that teachers do not have clarity about how far technology can be beneficial for the facilitation and enhancement of learning. Of course, some teachers may have positive attitudes to the technology, but refrain from using it in teaching due to low self-efficacy, tendency to consider themselves not qualified to teach with technology.
In this respect, Badura, (1986) describes self efficiency as "individuals" opinion of capabilities to organize and perform courses of actions to achieve particular types of performances" Moreover as identified by Brosan (2001) attitude motivation computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy are factors affecting teacher use of computer in theory lessons. Teacher resistance and lack of enthusiasm to use ICT in education may also be another limitation. Teachers' attitude plays an important role in the teaching-learning process that utilizes computers and internet connections.
Although teachers' attitude towards use of these technologies is vital, many observations reveal that teachers do not have clarity about how far technology can be beneficial for the facilitation and enhancement of learning. Of course, some teachers may have positive attitudes to the technology, but refrain from using it in teaching due to low self-efficacy, tendency to consider themselves not qualified to teach with technology. In this respect, Bandura (1986) describes self-efficacy as "individual's opinion of capabilities to organize and perform courses of actions to achieve particular types of performances." Moreover, as identified by Brosnan (2001), attitude, motivation, computer anxiety, and computer self-efficacy are factors affecting teachers' use of computers in their lessons. Teacher resistance and lack of enthusiasm to use ICT in education may also be another limitation. Furthermore, many teachers may not have the required IT skills and feel uncomfortable, nor do they have trainings needed to use the technology in their teaching. Unless teachers develop some basic skills and willingness to experiment with students, ICT in education is in disadvantages (Brosan, 2001), the integration of ICTs in education systems may face various challenges with respect to policy, planning, infrastructure learning content and language, capacity building and financing ICT- enhanced education clearly stated objectives mobilization of resource and political commitment of concerned bodies. Tinio 2002, discussed issues such as analysis of current practices and arrangements, identification of potential drives and barriers curriculum and pedagogy, infrastructure and capacity building to be considered in the formulation of policy and planning. With respect to capacity building we have to develop competencies to teachers and school administrators for the successful integration of ICT in the education systems. ICT integration in education should parallel with teachers professional development.
Technologies available in classrooms today ranges from simple tool-based applications (such as word processors), to online repositories of scientific data. Others are primary historical documents, handheld computers, closed-circuit television channels, and two-way distance learning classrooms. Prensky (2005) asserts that even the cell phones that many now carry with them can be used to learn. According to Lei and Zhao (2006) each technology is likely to play a different role in students learning. Rather than trying to describe the impact of all technologies as if they were the same, researchers need to think about what kind of technologies are being used in the classroom and for what purposes. Two general distinctions could then be observed from the literature. Students can learn from computers where technology are used essentially as tutors and serve to increase student's basic skills and knowledge. Moreover, they can learn with computers where technology is used as tool that can be applied to a variety of goals in the learning process and can serve as a resour;e to help develop higher order thinking, creativity and research skills (Reeves, 1998; Ringstaff and Kelley, 2002).
Statement of the Problem
Science educators and school science teachers have been ineffective in the way and manner they go about disseminating information in classroom (Olakulehin, 2007). Teachers do not have clarity about how far technology can be beneficial for the facilitation and enhancement of learning (Fisseha, 2011). Of course, some teachers may lack positive attitudes to the use of ICT and refrain from using it in teaching due to low self-efficacy, tendency to consider themselves not qualified to teach with technology (Fisseha. 2011). Teaching and learning has become passive in which, students' attention is not captured and their minds are hardly engaged especially in science subjects (Olakulehin, 2007). As result, there has been drastic decline in the performance of students especially in biology as a subject. This has prevented some of the science student from studying their prefer science course in the university due low grade in biology.
Nigerian student both primary and secondary have trailed behind other African countries in scientific assessment as reported by Akpan, B.B (2008).This situation has driven researchers to embark on a search for a better methods of teaching but to no avail. This has been a source of concern to the principals, teachers, parents, Ministry of education and students as well. This study therefore seeks to investigate the biology teachers' state of readiness for integrating ICT in learning and teaching in selected schools in Lagos state.
Purpose of the Study
2.. To ascertain the influence of biology teachers' knowledge of integrating ICT on their teaching among students in selected schools in Lagos state.
3. To determine the influence of biology teachers' competence for integrating ICT on their teaching experience among students in selected schools in Lagos state.
4. To ascertain the gender difference in biology teachers' state of readiness for integrating ICT in learning and teaching in selected schools in Lagos state
1. what is the influence of biology teachers' awareness of integrating ICT on learning among students in selected schools in Lagos state.
2. what is the influence of influence of biology teachers' knowledge of integrating ICT on their teaching among students in selected schools in Lagos state.
3. what is the influence of biology teachers' competence for integrating ICT on their teaching experience among students in selected schools in Lagos state.
4. Is there any gender difference in biology teachers' state of readiness for integrating ICT in learning and teaching in selected schools in Lagos state.
Significance of the Study
ICTs increasingly pervade every aspect of life (work, learning, leisure, and health). Because ICTs are excellent tools for information processing, the new generation needs to become competent in their use, should acquire the necessary skills, and therefore must have access to computers and networks while at school (Kok, 2007). Schools are information and knowledge holding institutions. Therefore, as a result of this study ICT will be fundamental information management tool at all levels of an educational system, from classroom to ministries.
Schools will profoundly revise present teaching practices and resources to create effective learning environments and improve life-long learning skills and habits in their students.
Scope of the Study
This study covers selected public secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State. Principals, teachers and students of these schools are intended to be used as respondents.
Limitation of the Study
One of the limitations was time factor; another was transportation and attitude of respondent which created problem to the researcher.