THE EFFECT OF DRUG ABUSE ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - iv
Table of Contents - - - - - - - - vi
Abstract - - - - - - - - - viii
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - 1
1.2. Problem Statement - - - - - - - 6
1.3. Purpose of the Study - - - - - - 8
1.4 Research Objectives - - - - - - 8
1.5. Research Questions - - - - - - 9
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - - 10
1.7. Limitations of the Study - - - - - - 12
1.8 Definition of Significant Terms - - - - 12
2.1. Alcoholism and Academic Performance - - - 14
2.2 Marijuana and Academic Performance - - - 20
2.3 Tobacco and Academic Performance - - - - 26
2.4 Levels of Drug and Substance Prevention - - - 31
2.5 Barbiturates and Academic Performance - - - 33
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 38
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - 38
3.3 Target Population - - - - - - - 39
3.4 Sample Size Sampling - - - - - - 39
3.5 Research Instruments - - - - - - 40
.6 Validity and Reliability - - - - - - 40
3.7 Reliability of Instrument - - - - - - 40
3.8 Data Collection Procedure - - - - - 41
3.7 Data Analysis - - - - - - - 42
DATA PRESENTATION ANALYSIS
4.1. Introduction - - - - - - - - 44
4.2 Relationship between Drug Abuse and Academic
Performance - - - - - - - - 44
4.3 Influence of Marijuana Abuse on Academic Performance - 45
4.4 Influence of Barbiturates Abuse on Academic Performance- 45
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction - - - - - - - - 47
5.2. Summary and Findings - - - - - - 47
5.3. Conclusion - - - - - - - - 49
5.4 Recommendations - - - - - - - 50
References - - - - - - - - 53
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. In an attempt to do this research questions were raised, hypotheses formulated. A sample of two hundred and forty students from six secondary schools in Ethiope East Local GovernmentAreaf Delt State was used. A 20-item Liker type questionnaire designed by the researcher and approved by the supervisor was used to gather data on drug abuse from the sample. The dependent variable was measured using a performance test developed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor and other experts in three core subjects of English language, Mathematics and Biology. Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to analyze the data for the five hypotheses. Based on the findings conclusions were made that there is a significant inverse relationship between drug abuse through intake of hallucinogens, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, intake of narcotics, intake of stimulants by students and their academic performance. Based on the conclusion, recommendations were made, which include that Federal Government, states and Local Governments shouldadopt an approach for preventing drug abuse in oursecondary schools by improving the quality of academic life and help fulfill the academic mission of secondary schools. Public and private school administrators should target at the vulnerable segment of our society, such as the older children,dolescents and young adults. Such educational measuresshould be carefully presented through methods that avoidthreats and dramatization. Parents and schools authoritiesshould educate their pupils on the need to stay away from destructive effects of these drugs.
1.1 Background to the Study
Drug abuse is the Use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically Kuria (1996). Social effects may be reflected in an individual’s enhanced tendency to engage in conflicts with friends, teachers, and school authorities. Cognitive effects relate to the individual’s lack of concentration on academic work and memory loss. While Lewinsohn (2007) defines a drug as any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning. It can enter the body through chewing, inhaling, smoking, drinking, rubbing on the skin or injection. Drug abuse amongst the global youth population has become a serious problem affecting everyone. Addiction leads many people, young people prominent amongst them, into downward spiral of hopelessness that in some cases ends fatal. They range from gluesniffing street children and teenage ecstasy users, to hard core heroin and cocaine addicts (Nacada, 2005).
Drug abuse is responsible for lost wages, destruction of property in schools, soaring health care costs and broken families. It is a problem which affects us all as parents, children, teachers, government officials, taxpayers and workers. United States of America was found to have citizens who were four times more likely to report using cocaine in their lifetime than the next closest country, New Zealand (16% vs. 4%), Marijuana use was more widely reported worldwide, and the U.S. also had the highest 2 rate of use at 42.4% compared with 41.9% of New Zealanders (Warner 2005-2008).The problem of alcohol and illicit drug use on college and secondary campuses is significant. Among college and secondary students, specific problems identified include binge-drinking, underage drinking, underage binge-drinking, and drug use. Estimates of prevalence of these behaviours range from 25 to 44%. American researchers have identified an upward trend for these problems, with increased percentages of students self-reporting these behaviours between 1993 and 2001 (Mohler-Kuo et al., 2003).
Abuse of substance is considered as one of the most critical problems in public health in the American colleges (Sullivan and Risler, 2002). Pakistan had an approximately 25 to 44% of students reporting alcohol and/or illicit drug use, and prevalence rates on the incline, this problem is a significant concern for Pakistani colleges and secondary (Khattak, Iqbal and Ullah, 2012). Binge drinking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use is associated with a number of consequences for students. Sheffield et al. (2005) indicate that binge drinking is associated with significant consequences to students, including employment, educational, and relationship problems. In addition, Wechlser et al. (2002) indicate that, in comparing underage with legal age students, underage students who drink are more likely to experience consequences related to their alcohol use. Researchers in Pakistan have identified an increasing prevalence of drinking and drug use among college students, an increasing trend of self-reported alcohol-related consequences, including arrests, has also been noted between 1993 and 2001 (Nicklin, 2000; Wechsler, Lee and Nelson 2002).
In accordance with present research related to alcohol and drug use among college and secondary students, the currently proposed research seeks to examine the extent and nature of alcohol use and how their academic performance is being affected by it. 3 South African study found an alcohol use prevalence rate of 39.1% and a cigarette use prevalence rate of 10.6% among high school adolescents. Other drugs that are commonly used in these settings include cannabis, inhalants, tranquilizers, heroin and cocaine, among others. The drug problem in South Africa is extremely serious, with drug usage reported as being at twice the world norm. Over 15% of their population has a drug problem. Studies show that people who start drinking before the age of 15 are four times more likely to become alcoholics. School kids who use alcohol or drugs are three times more likely to get involved in violent crimes.
Frighteningly the average age of drug dependency in South Africa is 12 years old and dropping (Peter Jordan, 2008). Tanzania, is the second country after Kenya in East Africa with an increasing number of drug users mainly being school going teenagers The Drug Control Commission (DCC) Report (2011) states that the actual number of drug addicts in general is estimated to be at between 150,000 and 500,000 nationwide. Statistics issued by Mirembe Hospital in Dodoma region that were incorporated in the DCC Report show that the number of young people who use drugs and attend clinics at the hospital increased from 290 in 2000 to 569 in 2005, equal to a 96.2 per cent increase. Kenya has reported high rates of substance use among students in public Secondary, (Odek-Ogunde et al., 2004) indicated rates as high as 84% for alcohol use and 54.7% for tobacco. The rates would continue to rise among students in institutions of higher learning in the near future for instance, (Kuria MW., 1996) found alcohol use prevalence rates of up to 15% among secondary school students, while (Kwamanga et al., 2003) found lifetime cigarette smoking rates of 32%. In a study among students in Kenya, (Ogwell et al., 2003) found a lifetime cigarette smoking rate of 31%. 4 The National government in UasinGishu County embarked on an aggressive campaign to fight drug and substance abuse (Michael Shiundu, 2014, Kenya News Agency). Stakeholder established advisory committees and other mechanisms to help sensitize communities on the vice. The campaign, which targeted parents and students was spearheaded by chiefs and their assistants at the grassroots level
According to Kapsoya location Chief Musa Kipchumba, drug abuse was becoming a disaster both in rural and urban settings, as barons target school children. In an interview, the Chief said the involvement of communities in the awareness campaigns had seen a reduction in cases of drug abuse by both parents and their children, hence increasing student enrolment and completion rates in schools. He said while drug and substance abuse had hit hard on the youthful population, the older people were also resorting to substance abuse through excessive intake of alcohol. Creating awareness to the public on the dangers of drug abuse has become one of the key priorities in the County Government work schedule as public servants, through this effort it is hoped that there will be reduced cases of drug and substance abuse by a huge percentage The report emphasized that measures had been put in place to reduce the production and sale of illicit brews, stating that through area advisory committees established under the County Commissioner’s office, they have managed to disband the illicit brew dens.
1.2. Problem Statement
Due to the rapid development, drug use has become common among students in campus and is even affecting their performances in class. Despite the worldwide concern and education about the dangers of drug abuse, most of the students have limited knowledge of how dangerous the habit is (Ngesu, 2008) Many students have dropped out of school and others opted to engage in criminal activities thus endangering the lives of the people living in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The young generation no longer has role models since most of the young Adults are unemployed and under the influence of this drugs. Despite the government’s concern and heightened campaigns against the vice among high school students, there exists a parallel accelerated rate of students who are illicit drug users. Although, students are expected to be aware of the effects of drug abuse and commit themselves to their studies, the habit still exist default of their prior expected awareness of its consequences.
Although excessive use of illicit drugs is prevalent in all societies, students with no exception, none of critical studies on factors influencing its prevalence comparing in school to out of school youth has yet been conducted in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. This has been established from a thorough search in the archives and libraries so as to ascertain originality of this study. This has been a green field of research that has greatly prompted the choice Ethiope East as the location of the study. This study therefore, seeks to establish the correlation between poor academic performance and the use of drugs in public secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The study will also assess the various reasons as to why students abuse drugs and the various types of drugs available to the students’ population. Behaviour is a major aspect of life, after observing students behaviour when under the influence of this drugs this study will recommend ways of rehabilitating those already affected and ways of eradicating drug peddling business going on at our Secondary. The study will also propose policy recommendations to mainstream drug related projects to secure students’ rights to education and the entire young generation.
1.3. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this project is to investigate the influence of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
1.4 Research Objectives
The objective of the current study will be:
- To determine the extent to which Alcohol abuse Influences Student’s Academic Performance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
- To examine the extent to which Marijuana abuse influences Student’s Academic Performance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
- To evaluate how Tobacco abuse influences student’s Academic performance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State.
- To examine the extent to which Barbiturates abuse influences student’s Academic Performance in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State
1.5. Research Questions
The study will attempt to answer the following questions:
1. What is the extent of Alcohol abuse among students in public secondary in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State?
2. What are the main causes of Marijuana use among the students in public secondary schools?
3. Which are the drugs commonly abused by the students in public secondary schools?
4. What are some of the negative impacts on academics caused by the abuse of tobacco?
5. How does the use of Barbiturates influence students’ academic performance?
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be useful to the Community, Institutions of higher learning and the County Government. The study will reveal the influence of major drugs on students’ academic performance and in their behaviour aspects. There are many parents and lecturers with questions as to why their students don’t perform as expected, the government is also looking for explanations as to why the youth are not innovative and as to why most of them drop out of school. Ethiope East Local Government Area, like many other local governments, is faced with the social problem of high rates of drug abuse. To make matters worse, the percentage of drug abusers in the population increases yearly despite the efforts to eradicate the problem. Failure to solve this problem not only threatens the life of individuals, but also the economic and social development of the country as a whole. The current study is useful in contributing to the general body of knowledge in this area. Beyond that, however, it also explores the potential of secondary as well as other schools to curb the drug problem.
The study should help to make local government; administrators, local community as well as students aware of the factors hindering the effectiveness of the approaches which attempt to curb drug abuse and, where possible, create opportunities to eradicate the problem. The proposed programme would be useful in educating all youths and adults inEthiope East Local Government Area of Delta State, on the risks of drug consumption. Thus, this study would play an important role in reducing, or even preventing high rates of drug use and abuse. Based on the findings, recommendations will be made. If followed, these recommendations would be useful to administrators and local government in curbing drug abuse in schools through improving existing educational programmes, and striving to develop ones that are even more efficient.
A part from proposing more effective preventive measures in relation to drug abuse, the study will also provide a background for other studies in its prevention. This would help in promoting a drug-free school environment and better academic performance, thus improving the standards of education in the county. In the absence of specific policies on substance abuse in schools this study will make important recommendations on the way forward.
1.7. Limitations of the Study
Exploring the possible confounds and conducting a thorough investigation into the construct validity of information given by respondents will be difficult and would require additional research. This research could perhaps assume a qualitative nature, and might probe people’s concepts about personality resilience, comprehensibility, manageability and so on. Interviews and panel discussions with people from the local community, local government and the administration may help but in spite getting a research permit and letters of introduction from relevant government authorities and schools, suspicion of the area of research would also likely to cause unnecessary delays. Drug abuse is sensitive and many people may withhold vital information.
1.8 Definition of Significant Terms
* Alcohol abuse - A pattern of drinking that result in harm to one’s health, interpersonal relationships, or ability to work.
* Academic Performance - The extent to which a student has achieved his or her educational goals.
* Barbiturates - They are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants. They produce effects ranging from mild sedation to total anaesthesia. They include sleeping pills and mau.
* Binge Drinking - drinking lots of alcohol in a short space of time or drinking to get drunk or feel the effects of alcohol
* Drug - Any product other than food or water that affects the way people feel, think, see, and behave. It is a substance that due to its chemical nature affects physical, mental and emotional functioning.
* Drug abuse- The Use of drugs for purposes other than medical reasons, thus affecting the individual in a negative way socially, cognitively or physically. Influence - the power to change or affect someone, the power to cause changes without directly forcing them to happen.