Law Project topic on Protection and redress for victims of crime in Nigeria: an appraisal of the roles of the police and the court

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Law Project topic on Protection and redress for victims of crime in Nigeria: an appraisal of the roles of the police and the court

ABSTRACT

 

The decline in protection and redress for victims of crime in Africa, and Nigeria in particular, began at the inception of colonialism and imposition of alien court and legal systems on the territories. Until then, the primary purpose of the customary legal processes, was the, “compensation of the victim, rehabilitation of the offender where relevant, and restoration of tranquility to the disturbed community”. The offender, irrespective of status or standing in the society, was always promptly, publicly and appropriately sanctioned. This research primarily interrogates the roles of the court and the police in protecting and redressing victims of crime in Nigeria. It examines the rights of adult and child victims of crime guaranteed by the United Nations. Consequently, United Nations’ and European Union’s resolutions and declarations about victims of crime, presently enforced in Europe and the United States of America, are extensively interrogated. Also interrogated are the unconditional release on bail of detained suspected persons, the adverse consequences of grant of prohibitive court orders against criminal investigations, the likelihood of abuse and misuse of ex parte injuctive process, the dilemma of obeying such orders by law enforcement officers, and the implications on the principle of fair hearing. The Court of Appeal’s perception of the indiscriminate use of the process against public functionaries also comes into focus. Legal textbooks, seminar papers, journal articles, internet resources, national constitutions, human rights instruments, United Nations’ resolutions, declarations and recommendations on the issue, and other related statutes are examined. The study advocates promulgation of victims-friendly legislation and the establishment of Victims’ Compensation Commissions or Boards by African countries, like their counterparts in Europe and America. It finally proposes that when such Boards or Commissions are established, they should be manned by credible and eminent persons in law and cognate areas; with the sole responsibility of identifying and compensating genuine victims of crime accordingly.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER                            TITLE                                                                   PAGE

 

Cover Page                  –           –           –           –           i

 

Title Page                    –           –           –           –           ii

 

Declaration                  –           –           –           –           iii

 

Certification                –           –           –           –           iv

 

Dedication                  –           –           –           –           v

 

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           vi

 

Abstract                      –           –           –           –           vii

 

Table of Contents       –           –           –           –           viii

 

Table of Cases             –           –           –           –           xvi

 

Table of Statutes         –           –           –           –           xxiv

 

Abbreviations              –           –           –           –           xxxii

 

 

                CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 

1.1           Background of the Study   —                      —                      —                      1

1.2           Statement of Research Problem                  —                      —                      9

1.3           Research Questions             —                      —                      —                      10

1.4           Objectives of the Study     —                      —                      —                      10

1.5           Significance of the Study   —                      —                      —                      11

1.6           Scope of the Study                         —                      —                      —                      12

1.7           Methodology of the Study             —                      —                      —                      13

1.8           Chapterisation                     —                      —                      —                      13

1.9           Definition of Key Terms    —                      —                      —                     15

 

                CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

  1. 1 The Genesis of doing Justice to Victims of Crime                                     23

2.1.1       Modern Codes and Laws – Magna Carta 1215                 —                      25

2.1.2      The United States Constitution                                                                 26

2.2         The Genesis of Victims’ Rights’ Movement                      —                      26

2.2.1        Pre-colonial Africa and Rendering Justice to Victims                              32

2.2.2        The Colonial Era                                       —                      —                      35

2.2.3      Adoption of Alien Legal System and Impact on Justice to Victims         37

2.2.4       Post-Colonial Nigeria                                —                      —                      38

2.3         The Police and Justice to the Victims         —                      —                      44

2.4         Human Rights as Rights for All                —                      —                      44

2.5         The Imperativeness of Restorative Justice —                      —                      47

2.6         Corruption Explained         —                      —                      —                      51

2.6.1        Corruption and Criminal Justice System in Nigeria – The Courts               52

2.6.2         The Nigeria Police              —                      —                      —                      56

2.7          The Theory of Separation of Powers and the Nigerian Constitutions        57

2.8           The Impropriety of Meddling in Criminal Investigative Processes            60

 

                CHAPTER THREE: THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE

                PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS

 

3.1           The Charter of the League of Nations                                —                      64

 

3.1.1        The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948             —                      65

 

3.1.2        The other International Instruments                                   —                      68

 

3.2           The Efficacy of the Universalism and Relativism Debate  —                      70

3.3           The origin of Doing Justice to Victims of Crime                —                      74

3.3.1        The Ecclesiastical Era                                —                      —                      75

3.3.2        The Ancient Code – The Hammurabi’s Code                     —                      75

3.3.3        The Medieval Period – The Twelve Tables                        —                      77

3.3.4       The Mosaic Code                —                     —                      —                     78

3.3.5       The English Law (Stare decisis)                 —                      —                      78

3.3.6        The Magna Carta 1215                              —                      —                      79

3.3.7       The Modern Epoch (The United States Constitution 1878)                       81

  1. 3.8 Pre-colonial Africa and the Protection of Human Rights – (Nigeria) 81

3.3.9        The Pre-colonial Africa and Traditional legal Processes     —                      87

3.3.10      The other Parts of Africa   —                      —                      —                      89

3.4           The Decline in Doing Justice to Victims    —                      —                      90

3.4.1        Impact of decline in Africa (Colonial era)                         —                      90

3.4.2        Impact of decline in Africa (Post-colonial era)                  —                      93

3.5           Resurgence of Agitations for Victims’ Rights – USA        —                      94

3.5.1        Resurgence of Agitations for Victims’ Rghts – (UNO)     —           `         96

3.6           Impact of Majory Fry’s Movement on the Revival of Agitations             97

3.6.1        Impact of Majory Fry’s Activities on Agitations in Europe                      98

3.6.2         Impact of Majory Fry’s Activities in the USA                  —                      98

3.6.3         Impact on Non-governmental Organisations                     —                      101

3.6.4        Impact on Regional Organisations (EU)    —                      —                      102

3.6.5         Impact on Africa – Nigeria                        —                      —                      103

3.7           The Supreme Court’s Perception on Justice for Victims    —                      107

3.8           Overview of National Legislation – CFRN 1999               —                      109

3.8.1        The Criminal Procedure Act and the Criminal Procedure Code               111

3.8.2        The Legal Status of UN Declarations and Resolutions     —                      112

3.8.3        The UN 1985 Declaration of Basic Principles                    —                      114

3.8.4        The Analysis of UN 1985 Declaration of Basic Principles–                     115

3.9           The Protected Rights’ of Victims                                     —                      117

3.9.1         Right to Treatment of Victims with Respect and Compassion                 118

3.9.2         Right to the Protection of Life, Property and lives of Dependants          119

3.9.3        Right to Compensation and other legal Assistance           —                      120

3.9.4        Right to other financial needs and Assistance                   —                      121

3.9.5      Right to involvement in Decision making                           —                       121

3.9.6        Right to involvement in Mediation                                    —                      122

3.10         The European Union and Rights of Victims of Crime       —                      122

 

3.10.1     Council Recommendation – No. R (85)11                         —                      123

3.10.2       Council Recommendation – .No. R (87)21                        —                      126

3.10.3      The 2001 EU. Framework Decision          —                      —                      126

3.11         Victims’ Rights’ Legislations in the United States of America                 127

3.12         The UN and Protection of Child Victims – The Model Law                     128

3.12.1      The Rights for Child Victims and Witnesses                     —                      129

3.13         The Examination of Rights’s of Child Victims and Witnesses                  132

3.13.1       The Best Interest of the Child Principle                            —                      132

3.13.2        The Right to be Treated with Diginity and Compassion —                      133

3.13.3       The Right to be Protected from Discrimination                —                      133

3.13.4       The Right to be Informed                         —                      —                      134

3.13.5       The Right to be Heard and to Express Concern               —                      134

3.13.6       The Right to Effective Assistance            —                      —                      135

3.13.7        The Right to Privacy                                —                      —                       135

3.13.8       The Right to be Protected from Hardship during Justice Process            136

3.13.9       The Right to Safety                                   —                      —                      136

3.13.10      The Right to Reparation or Compensation                       —                      137

3.13.11      The Right to Special Preventive Measures                       —                      137

3.14            The Overview of Regional / Lgislation on Child Victims – Africa          139

3.14.1       Europe       —                      —                      —                      —                      139

3.14.2       Organisation of American states/Asia and the Middle East                     139

3.15         Analysis of National Legislations on Child victims           —                      140

3.16         Model of State Compensation                    —                      —                      142

3.17         The UN and Protection of Victims of Abuse of

Power (UDHR 1948)                                                                                   143

 

3.17.1      The AU and Protection of Victims of Abuse of Power                —          147

3.17.2      African Charter on Human and Peoples’Rights                —                      149

3.17.3        African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights      —                      150

3.17.4        African Human Rights’ Court                  —                      —                      151

3.17.5      African Court of Justice and Human Rights —                  —                      153

3.18         National Legislation on Protection of Victims of

Abuse of Power – The CFRN 1999 (as amended)  —          —                      154

3.18.1      The Fundamental Rights’ Enforcement Procedure Rules (FREP) 2009    156

 

3.18.2      The Interim Reliefs that Court can Make   —                      —                      158

3.18.3      The Witness Protection Bill                        —                      —                      160

3.18.4      High Courts’ Decisions under (FREP) Rules 2009            —                      160

3.19         Rights of a Suspect (Before and After Arrest)                   —                      163

3.19.1      Rights of an Accused Person (During Trial) —                   —                      164

3.19.2      Rights of an Accused Person (After Trial) —                      —                      164

3.19.3      Defences available to Victims of Abuse of Power             —                      165

 

               CHAPTER FOUR: THE POLICE, COURTS AND PROTECTION

               AND REDRESS FOR VICTIMS OF CRIME

4.1         The Origin of the Police and Policing in Nigeria                  —                      166

4.1.1      The Colonial Police Forces                           —                      —                      168

4.1.2      The Colonial Trading Company and Security 1886             —                      169

4.1.3       The Lagos Consular Guard 1861 and the Southern Police Force 1906       170

4.1.4        The Nigeria Police Force 1930                    —                      —                      171

4.1.5        The NPF under the 1960/63 Constitutions and

 

The Unification of the NPF Systems 1966 —                      —                      171

4.1.6        The NPF under the 1979/99 Constitutions —                      —                      173

4.2           The Development of Police Force and Policing in the UK —                     174

4.2.1        The London Metropolitan Police 1829       —                      —                      175

4.2.2        The Formation of the Criminal Investigation Division       —                      176

4.3           Origin of Police and Policing in the United States             —                      176

4.3.1        Police Systems in the United States           —                      —                      177

4.3.2        Formation of Professional Police Departments —               —                      177

4.3.3        Creation of the Criminal Investigation Division                 —                      178

4.3.4        Professionalisation of Policing                    —                      —                      179

4.4           Sources of Police Power and Coersion       —                      —                      179

4.4.1        Arrest:  How it is made                               —                      —                      181

4.4.2        The Definition and Objectives of Arrest                            —                      183

4.4.3        Notification of Reasons for Arrest             —                      —                      184

4.4.4        Classification of Arrest                               —                      —                      185

4.4.5        The Legality of Police Infraction on Citizen’s Rights        —                      188

4.5           Herman Goldstein’s Ideal Police Functions                       —                      190

4.6           The Marxists’ Perception of Police Functions                    —                      191

4.6.1        The Researcher’s Rejoinder                        —                      —                      193

4.7           Examination of Police Powers and Functions (Nigeria)     —                      196

4.7.1       Classification of Police Powers of Arrest   —                      —                      198

4.7.2        Power of Arrest without Warrant               —                      —                      198

4.7.3        Standard of Proof for Arrest – ‘Reason Grounds’             —                      200

4.7.4        Power of Arrest with Warrant of Arrest     —                      —                      203

4.7.5        Status of a Nigerian Policeman                   —                      —                      206

4.7.6        Fusion of Police Powers and Functions      —                      —                      206

4.7.7        Discretion in Exercise of Police Power       —                      —                      207

4.7.8        Police Powers to Detain                              —                      —                      207

4.7.9        Police Power to Release on Bail                 —                      —                      210

4.7.10      Police Power to Prosecute                          —                      —                      211

4.8           Appraisal of Police Powers – United Kingdom                 —                      213

4.8.1        Power of Arrest – Arrestable Offences       —                      —                      214

4.8.2        General Conditions for Arrest                    —                      —                      216

4.8.3        Standard of Proof for Arrest – ‘Reasonable Grounds’      —                      216

4.8.4        Dete            ntion and Treatments after Arrest       —                      —                      218

4.8.5        Time limits for Detention without Charge  —                      —                      220

4.8.6        Police Bail after Arrest                               —                      —                      221

4.9           Analysis of Police Powers – USA              —                      —                      222

4.9.1        Warrantless Arrest                                      —                      —                      224

4.9.2        Standard of Proof for Arrest – “Probable Cause Concept” —                     224

4.9.3        Emergence of “Reasonable Suspicion” Concept                —                      225

4.9.4        Prohibition of Double Jeopardy, etc. and the Procedural Safeguards        226

 

4.9.5        Custodial Detentions          —                      —                      —                      227

4.9.6        Investigative, Special Needs and Indefinite Detentions    —                      228

4.10         Redress for Unlawful Arrest and Detention                      —                      230

4.11         Comparative Analysis of use of Police Powers- UK, USA,

India and Nigeria                —                      —                      —                      233

4.12         The Constraints of Policing                        —                      —                      237

4.12.1      Constraints of Policing in Nigeria               —                      —                      238

4.12.2      Political Pressures and Policimg in Nigeria                         —                      239

4.12.3      Constitutional Constraints —                      —                      —                      240

4.12.4      Foundational Constraints    —                      —                      —                      243

4.12.5      Statutory Constraints          —                      —                      —                      246

4.12.6      Institutional Constraints     —                      —                      —                      248

4.12.7      Operational Constraints      —                      —                      —                      250

4.13         Corruption and the Nigerian State              —                      —                      256

4.13.1      Global Perception of Police Corruption      —                      —                      259

4.13.2      The Nigeria Police Force and Corruption   —                      —                      260

4.14         The Courts: Protection and Redress for Victims of Crime —                      266

4.14.1      Definition/SFunctions of Court      —                      —          —                      267

4.14.2      Ex parte order of Injunction – Origin and Application      —                      271      4.14.3 Reception into the Nigerian Legal System            —                      —                      271      4.14.4 Principles Regulating Grant of Ex parte Injunction        —                      272

4.14.5      Conditions for grant of ex parte Injunction                        —                      273

4.14.6      Meaning of “Order to Operate as Stay”                             —                      276

4.14.7      The Court of Appeal’s Perception of Ex parte Injunctive Process             277

4.14.8      The likelihood of Abuse and Misuse of the Process           —                      278

4.15         The Dilemma of Obeying Court Order against Criminal Investigation      280

4.15.1      Exception to Common law Rule of Disobedience to Court Order            282

4.16         Courts’ Meddling in Criminal Investigations and implication on

Police Powers and functions                       —                      —                      287

4.16.1      Implication of Ex parte order on the Principle of Fair Hearing                  290

4.17         The Necessity of Punishment and

Punishment as Negation of Human Rights                         —                      290

 

                CHAPTER   FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND

                RECOMMENDATIONS

 

5.1           Summary                             —                      —                      —                      292

5.2           Conclusions                         —                      —                      —                      296

3.3           Recommendations              —                      —                      —                      301      REFERENCES                        —                  —                      —                       305

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CASES

 

CASE   PAGE
Abia State vs A.G.Federation (2006) Vol. 176 LRCN 163288
Abimbola Davies vs N E C (unreported) FHC/11C/M/209/93278
Abdulhamid vs Akar (2006) 13 NWLR (pt.996) 47, 156
Aderinto vs Omojola (1998) IFHCLR 101)45
Adewole and Ors vs Jakande & ors (1981) INLLR 262155
African Continental Bank Ltd. vs Awogboro (1991) 2 NWLR (pt.176) 211273
A. G. Anambra vs Chief Chris Uba (2005) 33 WRN 1918, 162
A.G Ondo State vs A. G. Federation (2002) 9 NWLR (pt.772) 22251, 257
Agbakoba vs The Director of SSS (1994) 6 NWLR (pt.351) 475155
Aidamebor vs Obamogie (1989) FHCLR 50544, 110
A J Akpan & anor vs E F Johnson (unreported)  HU/MISC.402/201047, 161
Aksoy vs Turkey (1996) Eur.ct.HR 2260231
ALhaji Hammani Tijani v FRN & Ors. (unreported) ECW/CCJ/APP/01/06288
Allen v Wright (1938) 8 C & P 522222
Amanchukwu vs FRN (2009) 37 NSCQ 616285
Ariori vs Elemo (Muraino) (1983) 1 SCNLR 1361, 208
Aso Timoz Ltd. vs Timoz Engr. Ltd. (2005) 9 NWLR (pt.929) 189283
Asogwa vs Chukwu (2003) 4 NWLR (pt.811) 540278
Azanian Peoples’ Organisation vs President of the Republic of South Africa (1996) 4 SA 671299
Awotide vs IGP (2002) I FHCLR241155
Babatunde vs Olatunji (2000) Vol.75 LRCN 271281
Balarabe Musa vs Peoples’ Redemption Party (1981) 2 NCLR 763155
Bardeau vs McDowel 256 US.465 (1921)223
Barr. Nomeh vs ACP Tunde Bolarinmi (unreported) HAB/66M/12162
Barr. U.S.R Nworgu vs A.C.P Tunde Bolarinmi & ors (unreported) HAB/6ML/12162
Basinco Motor Ltd. vs Woermann-Line & Anor (2009) Vol.176 LRCN 163286
Beek vs Ohio 379 US-89.91 (1964)225
Benton vs Maryland 395 US.784 (1969)226
Boumediene vs Bush 127 S.ct.1478236
Brigham City vs Stuart (2006) 547 US 398236
Brogan vs United Kingdom 11 Eur.HR Rep 11756 (1988)321
Cady vs Dombronski (1973) 413 US.433229
Castorina vs Chief Constable of Surrey (1988) 138 NLJR    200, 217
Chapman vs Director of Public Prosecutions (1988) 89 cr.APP.R190217
Chibuike Odii vs ASP Bethel Amah & Ors (Unreported) HAB/16MC/012162
Chief Mrs Olufumilayo Ransom-Kuti & Ors vs AG Federation (1985) 6 SC 245 155
Chief E Bassey & ors vs Chief Afia & Ors (Unreported) CA/C/205/2007277
Chief Gani Fawehinmi vs Sani Abacha (1998) 1 HRLRA 543155
Chief Fawehinmi vs General Sanni Abacha (1996) 9 NWLR (pt.475) 710155
Chuck vs Cremer (1846) 47 ER280
Chukwuka vs COP (1984) NWLR 21201
Christie vs Leachinsky (1947) AC 573185
County of Riverside vs McLaughlin 500 US 44 (1991)           291218
Danaz Services Ltd. v COP Rivers State & Commander JTF P.H (unreported) FHC/PH/CS/81/2010162
David Egwu vs COP Ebonji State (unreported) HAB/49/10162
Dawes vs Director of Public Prosecutions (1994) Crim. R 69184
Dokubo-Asari vs FRN (2008) Vol.6 LRCNCC 1189
Dr. Beko Ransom-Kuti vs A.G.Federation (1998) 1 HRLRA 626155
Echeazu v COP (1974) NWLR 308189
Edwards vs Director of Public Prosecutions (1993) 97 Cr. App.301184
E E Akpan vs I E Akpan (unreported) HUK/MISC 24/2009282
Effiom vs State (1995) All NLR 1208
Ekwenugo vs FRN (2001) 6 NWLR (pt.708) 171288
Elika vs Nwakwola (1984) 12 SC.301285
Enebeli vs Chief of Naval Staff (2000) 9 NWLR (pt. 671) 119164
E.S & CS Ltd. vs NMB Ltd. (2005) 16 NWLR (pt.424) 215273
Estes vs Texas 381 US 532, 540 (1965)276
Fabunmi vs COP Osun State (2001) 2 FHCLR 380155
Fajemirokun vs CBN (2009) 37 NSCQR 16, 44
Fawehinmi vs Akilu (1989) 3 NWLR (pt.112) 685272
Fawehinmi vs FRN (2005) Vol.4 LRCNCC 2929
Fawehinmi vs IGP (2005) Vol.4 LRCNCC 292196
Femi Falana vs FRN (unreported) Suit No. FHC/IKJ/PT.351/47  155
Fenner vs Watson (1893) Ch.656278
Florida vs Bostic 49 Crt.2270 (1991)223
Florida vs Royer (1983) 460 US 491234
Folade vs A.G. Lagos State (1981) 1 NCLR 135155
FRN vs Osahon (2008) Vol.6 LRC NCL 377212
7 Up-Bottling Co. Ltd. vs Abiola & Sons Ltd. (1995) 3 NWLR (pt.383) 25762
G vs DPP. (1989) Crim. LR150216
Gadan vs The Queen (1954) 14 WACA 442165
Gani Fawehinmi vs The State (1990) 1 NWLR (pt.127) 486164
Garba vs University of Maiduguri (1986) 4 NWLR (pt.18) 597164
Gerstein vs Pugh 420 US 103 (1975)228
Glinski vs McIvor (1962) AC 942217
Godwin Akwaowo vs Mrs. Margaret Esoh (unreported) HU/MISC.168/2004.287
Government of Lagos State vs Ojukwu (1986) 1 NWLR (pt.18) 621281
Group Danone & Anor vs Voltic (Nig.) Ltd. (2008) 3 – 4SC 32283
Hamdi vs Rumsfield 542 US 509180
Hayes vs Chief Constable of Merseyside Constabulary(2011)EWCA217
Hearbottle United vs National Westminster Bank (1978)QB146282
Holgate-Mohammed vs Duke (1984) AC. 437216
Hon. Eze Celestine Eze vs COP Ebonyi State (unreported) HAB/20/93 162
Howell (1981) 3 All ER 383287
Udofia vs The DPO Ibiono Ibom & COP AIS (unreported) HIT/MISC.17/2007287
IGP vs Ogbomo (1957) WRNLR 200117
Ikonne vs COP & Nanna Nwachukwu (1986) 4 NWLR (pt.36) 473203
Illinois vs Ridster (2004) 540 US 419234
In Re-Kelmer 136 US 436 (1890) 226
In Re-Oliver 333 US 258 (1948)226
Jammal vs The State (1999) 9 NWLR (pt.472) 352164
Jimoh vs A.G. Federation (1998) 1 FHCLR 171 165
Kalu vs State (1988) 4 NWLR pt.503 107
Kelvin Peterside vs International Merchant Bank(Nig.) Ltd. (1993) 2 NWLR (pt.278) 712. 156
Klopfer vs North Carolina 386 US (1957)226
Kotoye vs CBN (1989) 1 NWLR (pt.98) 418273
Ladunni vs Kukoyi (1972) 1 ALL NLR (pt.1) 113273
Lasisi Atanda & Ors vs Salami Ajani (1989) 3 NWLR 511208
McDermott vs R (1948) 76 CLR 501228
Meredith vs Erath (9th cir.2003) 342 F.3d1057234
Michael Nwome vs ASP William Bapee & Ors (unreported) HIK/32M/13162
Michael S. James vs Godwin Asuquo & Ors (unreported) HU/MISC/63/201047, 161
Millennium Invst. Trust vs COP Ebonyi State (unreported) HAB/53/12 162
Minister of Internal Affairs vs Shugaba Darman (1982) 3 NCLR 91545
Mobil Oil (Nig.) Ltd. vs Assam (1995) 8 NWLR (pt.412) 419 281
Momoh vs Senate & ors (1981) 1 NCLR 105155
Nigeria Civil Service Union vs Essien (1985) 3 NWLR (pt.12) 306273
Njoku vs State (1993) 6 NWLR (pt.299) 274165
Nwafor Aniara vs Nkwuda Nnara & ors (unreported) HAB/9MC/13162
Nwafor Ukegbu vs The State (1979) 1 SC 1107
Nwude vs FRN (2005) 1 NCC 196276
Nyali Ltd. vs A.G. (1955) 1 ALL ER 94648
Nzewi vs COP (2002) 2 HRLRA 156274
Obiakor vss State (2002) 10 NWLR (pt.776) 612165
Odogwu vs A.G. and 6 ors (1995-96) All NLR 480231
Odogwu vs Odogwu (1992) 2 NWLR (pt.275) 539282
Odutola vs Lawal (2003) 1 NWLR (pt.749) 633273
Ogboh vs FRN (2002) 10 NWLR (pt.774) 22164
Okafor vs Onedinibe (2003) 19 NWLR (pt.825) 415278
Okechukwu Nnamani vs Fabian Onukwo (unreported) HAB/9MC/13162
Okechukwu vs Okechukwu (1980) 3 NWLR (pt.108) 234273
Okegbu vs The State (1979) II SC 56271
Okojie & Ors vs A.G Lagos State (1981) 2 NCLR 337155
Okonuwa vs The State (1975) All NLR 262164
Olusemo vs COP (1998) 11 NWLR (pt.575) 547212
Omelas vs United States 116 Sct.1657 (1996)223
Oyewole vs Akande (2009) Vol.171 LRCN 76155
Oyewole vs COP (1979) 2 FNR 301285
Ozulonye vs State (1983) 4 NCLR 20461
Parker vs Parker (1954) ALL ER 22265
Paul Unongo vs Aper Aku (1983) 2 SCNLR 33260, 155
R vs Akinyanju (1959) WRNLR 253204
R vs Brosch (1988) Crim.LR.743218
R. Benkay (Nig.) Ltd. vs Cadbury (Nig.) Ltd. (2006) 6 NWLR (pt.976) 338284
R vs Chancellor of the University of Cambridge (1723) 1str.557285
R vs Ndo (1955) 14 WACA 352187
R vs Purcel (1992) Crim.LR 806218
Rabiu vs The State (1980) 8-11 SC 13019, 165
Rasul vs Bush 542 US 466 (2004)232
Regina vs Lord Chancellor, Ex-parte William (1997) QB 575276
Rice vs Connolly (1966) 2 QB 414222
Richardson vs Chief Constable of West Midlands Police (2011) EWHC.217
Savanah Bank (Nig.) Ltd. vs NDIC (2005) 11 NWLR (pt.936) 31162
Secondi Bogban & 2 ors vs Motor Diwline & 2 ors (2005) 16 NWLR (pt.951) 274.273
Shugaba Darman vs Fed Minister of Internal Affairs (1981) 1 NCLR 25155
Spicer vs Holt (1977) AC 987222
Spokes vs Bembury of Health (1865) LRNL EQ.42281
State vs Pinkham (Me.1989) 565 A.29 318229
Suleman & Anor vs COP Plateau State (2008) 2-3 SC (pt.1) 185277
Sullivan Chime vs Onyia & Ors (2009) 2 NWLR (pt.124) 152
Sunday Okuduwa & Anor vs The State (1988) 2 NWLR 333106
Swafford Unified School District vs Redding (2009) – US – (2009 – L1789472)234
Terry vs Ohio 392 US.1 (1967)225
Theresa Onwo vs Nwafor Oko & Ors (1996) 6 NWLR (pt.456) 612281
Thomas Edison Ltd. vs Bullock (1912) CLR 696284
Trop vs Dulles 356 US 86 (1958)226
Twinning vs New Jersey US 78 (1908)184
Udeh vs FRN (2001) 5 NWLR (pt.706) 312276
Union of Indian vs Mohm. Sadiq Rather (1993) 1 Cr.LR 157 at 159 (SC)236
United States vs Campbell (5th cir.1999) 178 F 3d 345234
United States vs Morrison 120 sct 1740 (2000)226
United States vs Place (1983) 430 US 2235
United States vs Rodrigues – Morales (1st cri.1991) 929. F.2d 780229
United States vs Sokolow (1989) 490 US 1234
Usman vs Kaduna State House sof Assembly (2007) 11 NWLR (pt.1044)285
Uso vs COP (1972) 11 SC 37106, 266
UTB vs Dolmetsch Pharmacy (Nig.) Ltd. (1912) 15 CLR 679273
UTB vs DP (Nig.) Ltd. (2008) Vol.156 LRCN 197284
Uzodinma vs COP (1983) 3 NCLR 325164
Uzoukwu & Ors vs Ezeonu 11 & Ors (1991) 6 NWLR (pt.200) 76345
Ward vs Chief Constable of Avon and Somerset Constabulary (1986) The Times29
Wilkerson vs Utah 99 US 130 (1978)226
Wiltshire vs Barrett (1965) 2 ALLER 271200
Wright vs McCann 387 F.20 519 (2d cir.1967) 526163

 

 

 

 

                                                  TABLE OF STATUTES

 

PAGE
STATUTE 
The Nigerian Child Rights’ Act 2003140
Akwa Ibom State High Court (Civil Procedure) Rules 2009

Order 10 Rule 11

 

283
Akwa Ibom State Child Rights Law 2008135, 138, 140
Lagos State Trafficking in Persons (Prohibition)

Law Enforcement and Administration 2003

104
Lagos State
Administration of Criminal Justice Law 2007104
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1960 (repealed)63
Section 2163
Sections  99 – 10363
Constitution of the Federal Republic of  Nigeria 1963

(Republican Constitution) (repealed)

63, 239
Chapter VII ss. III – 12863
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1979 (repealed)63
Ss.6(5)(e)and(f)    Sections 23 – 3363
Section  19463
Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999

(as amended)

31, 109
Sections  1 – 659
Sections  33 – 3944, 108
Sections 40 – 4646, 61, 154
Section  153 – 175165
Section  211 – 2157, 61, 246
Sections  241 – 284240
Criminal Code Cap C.38 LFN 2010
Sections 20 – 60165
Sections 86 – 100165
Sections 101 – 260187
Sections 261 –  276163, 164, 238
Sections 277 – 298163, 164 238
Criminal Procedure Act  Cap41 LFN 2010
Sections 3 – 961
Sections 10 – 207, 61
Sections 21 – 30165
Sections 50 – 118210
Sections 245 – 260104, 164
Sections 261 – 28663
Section 298165
Section 358165
Section 452 – 45663
Criminal Procedure Code CAP C42 LFN 2010
Section 2 – 267, 61
Section 42 – 5561, 62
Section 56 – 78104, 204
Evidence Act CAP E14 (2011) LFN 2010
Sections 137 (3), & 175164, 165
Federal High Court (Civil Procedure) Rules 2009283
Order 9 Rule II283
Force Order186
Order No. 237186
Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules 2009156, 160
Order1 Rules (1-6),156
Order 1(11) – XV156
Order II (5) & (6)156
Order IV Rules 3, 4 & 6156, 158, 160
Interpretation Act, Cap C123 LFN 2010206
Section 18 (1)206
Oaths Act Cap 01 2010 LFN197
Section 58197
Penal Code Cap P3 2010 LFN165
Sections 45 – 49165, 184
Sections 50 – 51165
Section 78165
Police Act and Regulations Cap P19 LFN 20107
Section  4 – 227, 202
Sections 23 – 309, 61, 197
Sections 31 – 36197
Sections 268 – 280206
Sections 339 – 349238, 246
Sections 352 – 358246
Sections 364 – 366247
Sections 369 – 393206, 214
Indian Constitution 1949 179
Articles 21, 22 (1)179
UNITED KINGDOM 
Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) (as amended in 2011) 180
Sections 24215
Sections 25215
Sections 28 – 34184
Part IV219
Code of Practice (incorporated in PACE 1984) ‘C’ Part IV218
Section 36219
Sections 37 – 67205, 214
Sections 241 – 247180, 205, 214
Magistrates Court’s Act 1980180, 218
Sections 1 – 28205
Sections 55,76,93 & 97180
Section 125180, 218
Other UK statutes include,
Criminal Justice Act 1988136
Crown Prosecution Service Children’s Charter: Draft for Public Consultation 2005136
The Air Force Act 1955218
The Army Act 1955218
The Criminal Law Act 1977188
The Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994218
The Children and Young Persons’ Act 1969218
The Bail Act 1976218
The Immigration Act 1971218
The Military Lands Act 1892218
The Prison Act 1952218
The Protection of Animal Act 1911218
The Public Order Act 1986218
UK Code for Crown Prosecutors, 2004136
Youth Justice & Criminal Evidence Act136
UNITED STATES
US Constitution 1787 (as amended) & (reprinted 2007) 110 Congress 1st Session Doc. No. 110-5081
The Fourth Amendment180, 222
The Fifth  Amendment180,222
The Sixth  Amendment180, 222
The Eight Amendment180, 222
 The Fourteenth Amendment 222
US Patriot Act 2001225
Alaskas’s Constitution Rights of Crime Victims Act S.24136
The Act of Settlement 170180
The Habeas Corpus Act 167980
The Justice for All Act 2004100, 128
The Bill of Rights 168980
The Petition of Rights 162880
The Justice Assistance Act 1984100
The Mandatory Victims’ Restitution Act 1996100
The Victim of Child’s Abuse Act 1990100
The Victims’ of Crime Act 198499, 128
The Victims’ Rights and Restitution Act 1990100
The Violence against Women’s Act 1994100
The Trafficking Victims’ Protection Act 2000100
The U S Crimes and Criminal Procedure Code 18   USC No. 3771111, 127
American Convention on International Traffiking on Minors133
Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture133
United States Code Collection Titles 18 chap.223 & chap. 244136
Colorado’s Children’s Code Title 19136
INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL INSTRUMENTS
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948 (UDHR)4, 13, 65
Proclamation Clause 165
Preamble Clauses  1 – 365, 144
Articles 1 – 1466, 144
Articles 15 -1968
Articles 20 – 2868
UNGA Res40/34 United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power (1985)4, 13, 115
Res.40/3417
Part ‘A’ 17
Article 1 – 517, 115
Articles 6 – 12115, 118
Articles 13 – 17116, 118
Part ‘B’116, 118
Articles 18 – 20116, 118
Article   21116, 118
African Union Documents
 The Constitutive Act of the African Union

1 July 2000.

152
Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Establishment of an African Court of Human and Peoples’ Rights. OAU DOC/LEG/MIN? AFCHPR/PRO (111) 1998.151
The Protocol to African Court 2004.
 Protocol on the Status of the African Court of Justice and Human Rights.153
Protocol on the Amendments to the Protocol on the Status of the African Court of Human and Peopls’ Rights 2012.154
African Charter on Human and People’ Rights4, 6, 13
Articles 1- 14132
Articles 15 – 29132, 149
Articles 30 – 38132, 150
Articles 43 – 48149
Article  49 – 68149
American Convention on Human Rights 1969133
The Rome Statute of International Criminal Court, UNTS. Vol.2187   No.38544 of July 17, 1988,134
Article 36 para.8(b); Art.42 para.9; Art.54 para.1 (b)134
Rules and Procedure of ICC. Rule 1 (3)135
United Nations Resolutions and other Treaties
Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners: Economic and Social Council Resolution No.663C (xxiv) of July 31, 1955, and 2076 (LXII) of 13 July 1977.131
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination: UNGA Res 2106(xx) adopted on 21 December, 1965, entered into force 4 January 196968
United Nations, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), UNGA Res.2200 A (xxi) of December 16, 1966, entered into force on 23 March 1976.46, 67
United Nations, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) UNGA Res 2200. A (xxi) of December 16, 1966, entered into force 3 January, 1976.46, 67
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: UNGA Res.34/180, adopted on December 18, 1979, entered into force 3 September 1981.68
Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, UNGA/RES34/169 of February 5, 1980, – Art.3.186
Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment Dec. 31, 1984. 10 S. Treaty Doc.No.100.20.1465 UNTS 85.68
United Nations, (1986) Declaration on the Right to Development UNGA Res.41/128, December 4.68
Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under any Form of Detention or Imprisonment. UNGA Res.43/173 of December 9, 1988.113, 228
United Nations, (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child: UNGA Res.44/25 of November 20, entered into force on 2 September 1990.68
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their families (MWC) UNGA Res.45/158 adopted December18, 1990.68
The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. UNGA Res 48/41 adopted on December 20, 1993.70, 74
Handbook on Justice for Victims on the Use and Application of the Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power 1999.13, 115
Handbook on Justice for Victims, United Nations Office for Drug Control and Crime Prevention, New York 1999.5
Convention against Transnational Organised Crime (UNTOC) UNGA Res 55/25 of November 15, 2000.113
The Development of Laws for theProtection of Victims 2000.23, 28
Protection of Rights of Victims of Crime and Human Rights Violations 2002 (Chapters 1 – 16).6, 46
 Protection and Redress for Victims of Crime and Human Rights Violation, United Nations, Geneva Switzerland, 2003. (Chapter 15).6, 46
UNGA A/60/L1 20, The World Summit Outcome September 2005.69
 Human Rights Fact Sheet Nos 29 and 32,

United Nations, New York 2008.

115
Victims of Torture and Access to Justice: A Primer. 2009.45
 What it is What it does, How it Works? United Nations, Geneva (2008).116
Handbook for Professionals and Policymakers on Justice in Matters involving Child Victims and Witnesses of Crime 2009.16, 119, 131
Res. 1977/30 Guidelines for Action on Children in the criminal Justice, Economic and Social Council annex131
Res.40/33 (annex) United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (the Beijing Rules).131
Res. 43/173 United Nations Body Principles for the Protection of all Persons under any form of Detention or Imprisonment.228
Res.45/112 United Nations Guidelines for the Prevention of Juvenile Deliquency (the Rijadh Guidelines).131
Res 45/113 United Nations Rules for the Protection of Juveniles deprived of their liberty.131
Res. 2995120 Guidelines on Justice in Matters involving Child Victim and Witness of Crime.16, 119, 131
United Nations Treaty Series:
UNTS Vols. 2225, 2237, 2241 and 2326 UN Convention against Transnational organized Crime and the Protocol thereto.113, 132
UNTS Vol. 1577 No.27531. The Convention on the Right of the Child.132
UNTS Vol. 2349 No. 42146. The UN Convention against Corruption.132
European Convention on the Compensation of Victims of Crime 1983102, 111
Preamble122
Articles.1-10122
Articles 11 – 12123
Article 13123
Article 14123
Articless 15 – 20123
Council Recommendation No. (R 85/11)  19856, 96, 123
Preambles 2 – 3124
Preamble  4 ‘D’124
Preamble 7124
Part ‘A’ Articles 5-6124
Part ‘C’ Article 8124
Part ‘D’ Articles 9 – 13124
Part G’ Article 16124
Part 2 (1) & (2)124
Part II125
Articles 1-8125
Articles 9-16125
Council Rec. No. R (79) 17(1979) on Protection of Children against ill-treatment127
Council Rec. No. R (85) 4 (1985) on Violence in the Family127
Council Rec. No R (87) 21 (1987) on Assistance to Victims and the Prevention of Victimisation103, 126
Council Rec. No.  R (1065) 1987on Traffic on Children and other forms of exploitation127
Council Rec. No.  R (90) 2 (1990) on Social Measures concerning Violence in the Family127
Council Rec. No. R (1371) 1998 on the Abuse and Neglect of Children.127
Council Rec. No. R 16 (2001) on the Protection of Children against sexual exploitation127
Council Rec. (2001/220/JHA) of  15 March, 2001,  Framework  Decision on the Standing of Victims in Criminal Proceedings103, 126, 135
ANCIENT CODES
Hammurabi’s Code (2000 Before The Common Era BCE)23, 75, 77
Laws 1 – 676, 77
Laws 23 & 2476
Magna Carta (1215)25, 79
Clauses 4 & 2980
Clause 3880
The Twelve Tables (450 BCE)24

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

 

Art/Arts           –           Article/Articles

Crim                –           Criminal

Edn                 –           Edition

Ed/s                 –           Editor/Editors

Para/s               –           Paragraph/Paragraphs

Pt/pts               –           Part/Parts

Rep                  –           Report

Res                  –           Resolution

Rev                  –           Review

S/SS                –           Section/Sections

Vol/Vols          –           Volume/Volumes

ALL ER          –           All England Law Report

ALL NLR       –           All Nigerian Law Report.

ANLR             –           All Nigerian Law Report (Reprinted)

AC                  –           Appeal Cases

BCC                –           British Company Law cases

AIR                 –           All India Reporters

BCLR             –           Butterworth’s Constitutional Law Report

Ch.                  –           Chancery Law Report

CHR                –           Case on Human Rights

CLR                –           Common Wealth Law Report

CMLR             –           Criminal Market Law Reports

Cr. App R       –           Criminal Appeal Report

DPSP              –           Directive Principles of State Policy

ICC                 –           International Criminal Court

ER                   –           English Report

Eur                  –           European

EWHC                        –           High Court Chancery Division

ECHR             –           European Court of Human rights

EU.ct.HR        –           European Court of Human Rights

FLR                 –           Federation Law Report

FHCLR           –           Federal High Court Law Report

FREP              –           Fundamental Rights (Enforcement Procedure) Rules

HRLRA          –           Human Rights Law Report of Africa

ICCPR                        –           International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

ICESCR          –           International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

ICPC               –           Independent Corrupt Practices Commission

LRCN             –           Laws Report of Court of Nigeria

LRCNCC        –           Law Report of Court of Nigeria Criminal Cases

PIL                  –           Public Interest Litigation

PCA                –           President of the Court of Appeal

PSCR              –           Pakistani Supreme Court Report

NCLR             –           Nigerian Constitutional Law Report

NRNLR          –           Northern Nigeria Law Report

NWLR                        –           Nigeria Weekly Law Report

NSCQR          –           Nigerian Supreme Court Quarterly Report

SAN                –           Senior Advocate of Nigeria

SC                   –           Supreme Court Report (selected judgments (Nig.)

SCC                –           Supreme Court Cases India

SCN                –           Supreme Court of Nigeria Law Report

SCNL              –           Supreme Court of Nigeria Law Report

SCR                –           Supreme Court Reporter (India)

S.ct.                 –           US Supreme Court Reporter

SERAC           –           Social and Economic Rights Action Centre

UNGA                        –           United Nations General Assembly

WACA            –           Selected judgments of the West African Court of Appeal

WRN               –           Weekly Report of Nigeria

WRNLR         –           Western Region of Nigeria Law Report

UNTOC          –           United Nation Convention against Transnational Organised Crime

CJC                 –           Chief Justice of Nigeria

CON               –           Commander of the Order of the Niger

GCON                        –           Grand Commander of the Order of the Niger

AIDS              –           Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

HIV                 –           Human Immune Deficiency Virus

NAVSS           –           National Association of Victims’ Support Scheme (England)

NOVA                        –           National Organisation for Victims’ Assistance (USA)

OVC               –           Office for Victims’ of Crime

VOCA                        –           Victims’ of Crime Act

Law Project topic on Protection and redress for victims of crime in Nigeria: an appraisal of the roles of the police and the court

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