ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS’S

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ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME SELECTED MEDICATED SOAPS ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS’S 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

 

ABSTRACT

The antibacterial activity of three type of medicate soap on staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections was conducted. The antibacterial activity of different types of antiseptic soaps on Staphylococcusaureus isolated from wound infections and eczematous lesions was evaluated. The samples were collected from fifty individuals with wound and eczema infection within the age range of 9-73 years. Swabs were collected and streaked on appropriate agar and incubation temperature. Out of the fifty (50) individuals sampled, 25 persons were mostly infected with Staphylococcusaureus (50% ±1.05) followed by Pseudomonasaeruginosa (22% ±0.91), Staphylococcusepidermis (10% ±0.33) and the least was Escherichiacoli (18% ±0.72). This study revealed that Staphylococcusaureus isolated and subcultured were sensitive to the three different antiseptic soaps. The zones of inhibition were highest in sample A with 25.0mm ±0.45 followed by sample B with 20.0mm ±0.98 and least in sample C with 10.0mm ±0.65. The results showed that antiseptic soaps were effective against Staphylococcusaureus involved in wound and eczema infection in humans. Therefore, antiseptic soaps could be used in cleaning the skin during time of hurt or cut, and should be used moderately by consumers to avoid irritation and resistance to pathogens.

 

  • Background of the study

 

According to pelage et al (1986) antibacterial activity is the ability to either destroy bacteria or inhibit their growth. This is significant with respects to the human body in preventing sepsis and skin infections. Also Derland (1981) states that medicated soap have the germicidal substance like chloroxyhlenol potassium mercuric iodide, trichlorocarbanlide etc. incorporated into them, in order to enhance their antibacterial activity. These germicide  substance are normally added in a specified amount and percentage of the substance used are always stated on the soapcase or  inside the lesflet which certains the information on how to use the soap for various purposes.

Anon (1964) states  that soap may be defined as a chemical compound resulting from the interaction of fathy acids oil and caustic soda (alkali) possesing the characteristic soap like properties of detergents, surface tension lowering wetting and emulsifying power and gel formation. All fatty oils and fats. Are mixtures of glycoside compounds (erters) of trihydric alcohol, glycosides and some  fatty acids such as plasmatic acid the chemistry of soap manufacturing may  be expressed the following equation which is know as saponification (Anon (1964).

HzCocoG5H31)3 + Na 0H        Naoco15H31      (zH31 + c3H5(oH)3

Palliation                     caustic             sodium palurtate         glycerion

Soda

Amon (1964) further explain that a bactericidal soap cernirts existentially of the following 0.1 to 3% weight based on the total weight of the soap.

0 to 10% by weight based on the total weight of the soap in a compound of formular

R –Co-N1-CH2C00H

CH3

Here R represents an alkyl or  alkenye group of 8 to carbon atoms.

According to Johnson (1978) antibacterial  soap may include 2,4,4,trichloro 2,2 hydroxydiphenyl in an amount 0.05 to 5% by weight and at least one phosphorus oxyacid. Phosphorus oxyacid salt phosphoric ester is represented by

(R1(oCH,CH2)

R2

Where R1 in (8-20 alkyl, R2 is hydrogen or  methyl and is (1-10). R1 is the same group as R2 or H alkali metal and n is H or alkali metal. Such a soap has a wide range of antibacterial activities and marked resistance of discoloration  upon exposure to sunlight (Kaw,1981) another invention relates to an autimicrobial composition consisting of ammoniated zinc sulphate optionally formulated into sufficient formulation and toilet bars. Medicated soap incorporate in their composition germicidal  agent which include hexachlorophene mercuric which trichoran, trichlorocarbaucide .

Sykes (1958) described sterilization as the complete destruction of all living matters. In medical sense, it is often used in a restricted sense to refer to  the destruction of pathogenic organisms only.

According to William (1979) wound is defined as disruption of cellular and anatomic continuity while its healing is the restoration of continuity.  That biological procen can only be accomplished by regeneration, cell proliferation and collage production which can be alleviated washing the would surface especially with medicated soap which due to its concert of pherolic compound help in keeping off organisms like staphylococcus aureus escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa always from the would to a certain stage. Wound can also result when the operative barrier of the skin is breached  by traumatic invasion or whether it is caused by trauma or internationally by surgery. The open area is susceptible to microbial invasion and once a would has become infected pus form in the injured area resulting to wound abbess.

Baker et al decried antisepsis as the most convenient way of preventing infection usually by inhibiting the growth of bacteria. And most disinfectant when  suitably diluted have the artixeptic action. Different method are employed for the destruction of bacteria or for getting rid of them and those method can  be conveniently divided into chemical physical and mechanical methods.

Baker et al (1985) explained that chemical agent function as a sterilizing agent by the following lethal mechanisms

  1. Disruption of the cell membranes
  2. Interfering with  orgymatic systems of the organisms emzyme poison)
  3. Co-aqulation of protein
  4. Oxidation

 

1.1              AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

  1. To isolate staphylococcus aureus from would infection
  2. To determine the artibacterial activity of three medicated soap on staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infection.

1.2              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Since Dorland (1981) stated that  medicated soaps have germicidal substances like chloroxylenol pothaium, mercuric widide  trichlorocarberihide etc incorporated into them in order to greatly their antibacterial activity. It is therefore necessary to investigate the artibaterial activity of three medicated soap (Asepos carat and temperate) on staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound inflection.

1.3              HYPOTHESES

Medicated soap have antibacterial activity

Medicated soaps have no artibaterial activity.

 

1.4              JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

The result of the project work will indicate the antibacterial activity of medicated soap. And if favourable, then medicated soap can be used for washing the surface of manor wound before the application of further medication

 

 

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