PARENTAL ATTITUDES TOWARD PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN UYO
Numerous social-psychologists have tried to define and explain attitudes, which is noteworthy and indispensable for psychology (Fazio & Olson, 2003; Kağıtçıbaşı, 2010). The attitude is a positive or negative assessment of an object (Zanna & Rempel, 1988). While it is generally thought that attitude has to be studied as a whole in terms of emotions, ideas, past experiences and behavioral intentions (Fazio & Olson, 2003; Zanna, 1990), recent studies revealed that the presence of an attitude does not require the simultaneous presence of all the aforementioned elements, causing attitudes to be dealt with as a kind of mental assessment (Kağıtçıbaşı, 2010). Attitudes establish communication with many things inside a social structure.
While occupying a noteworthy space in this structure, parents are also important in terms of the concept of attitude. Accordingly, numerous studies were conducted for investigating parental attitudes (Dietrich & Salmela-Aro, 2013; Özdemir et al, 2013; Ishak et al., 2012; Oncu & Unluer, 2012; Sawalha, 2012; Serinkan, 2012; Hoeve et al., 2011; Bolkan et al., 2010; Huver et al., 2010; Nekkebnoeck et al., 2010; Abar et al., 2009; Brand et al., 2009; Paczkowski & Baker, 2008; Yang &Shin, 2008; Dwairy & Menshar, 2006; Orhon et al., 2006). In view of these studies, it was clear that parental attitudes are influential on a wide range of issues, from education to motivation, from the sense of discipline to nutrition, from self-control to daily life, from development to academic success.
With parental attitudes having such an influential effect, various models were developed in order to describe their effects on behavioral outputs of the child. Baumrind (1973; 1978) suggested that there were three types of parenting styles, which are permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative. While permissive parents warmly approach their children, they are unsatisfactory in guiding them and limiting their behavior. On the other hand, authoritarian parents show less affection for their child and place emphasis on their obedience to them. An authoritative parenting style involves affection as well as behavior of clear and comprehensible guidance for children to acquire a series of important behavior styles and values (Baumrind, 1973).
The most remarkable studies on parental attitudes are those conducted on education and academic success. In a study conducted by Yang & Shin (2008), the potential effects of parental attitudes on daily lives, the development and education of children were investigated. They emphasized that parents attach great importance to their children’s academic success, and parental attitudes have a great effect on children’s academic success and education. However, there were many similar studies on influence of parental attitudes on education (Dietrich & Salmela-Aro, 2013; Ishak et al., 2012; Oncu & Unluer, 2012; Abar et al., 2009). In view of parental attitudes, several studies were conducted in the field of physical education, which is deemed an important part of education (Öncü & Güven, 2011; Sheehy, 2006; Stewart & Gren, 1987).
It was generally seen in these investigations that parental attitudes are important in terms of physical education activities. In a study by Stewert & Gren (1987), conducted on parents’ attitudes towards physical education course, it was concluded that parents adopt a positive attitude towards physical education courses in terms of athletic skills, emotional and cognitive development, and socialization. Sheehy (2006) investigated parents’ attitudes towards physical education programs at schools and determined that a few parents adopted a negative attitude towards physical Effects of Parental Attitudes on Physical Education Course Attitudes among Adolescents 211 education courses due to their negative experiences in the past, while many mothers did not have knowledge about the physical education course programs of their children.
In view of the studies undertaken in Turkey in this field, Öncü & Güven (2011) conducted a study to develop a scale for determining parental attitudes towards physical education and sports activities. Measuring the attitude towards physical education courses has always been a popular subject among researchers (Unlu, 2012).
It is therefore possible to come across numerous research studies on this subject (Ünlu, 2012; Ünlü et al., 2011; Arabacı, 2009; Bebetsos & Antoniou, 2008; Silverman & Subramaniam, 2007; Rikard & Banville, 2006; Koca et al, 2005; Hodge & Jansma, 1999; Carlson, 1995; Tannehill et al., 1994; Van Wersch et al, 1992; Luke & Sinclair, 1991; Figley, 1985).
However, no research was conducted to investigate the relationship between parental attitudes and the attitudes of students towards physical education courses or to what extent parental attitudes predict the attitudes towards physical education courses. From this point of view, it is important to determine the relationship between parental attitudes and attitudes towards physical education courses, and extent of this relationship. The aim of this research is to determine the extent of the relationship between parental attitudes and students’ attitudes towards physical education courses, and to what extent parental attitudes predict attitudes towards physical education courses.