THE ATTITUDE OF STUDENTS TOWARD LEARNING PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SOME SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOLS OF ADDIS ABABA
Researchers in the fields of health and physical education has recognized that the goals of public health and physical education are to get and remain school children physically active through their adult hood. In fact, the promotion of lifelong physical activity participation has been recognized as the ultimate goal of school physical education programs and physical has been ranked top in the ten leading health indicators. In addition, many studies have been showing various possible determinant factors that might contribute for students’ attitude towards health and physical education .Thus, this study tries to investigate the attitude of students learning physical education in some selected secondary schools of Addis Ababa. The data was collected through administration of questionnaires and the information was analyzed excel computer software and both qualitative and quantitative analytical procedures were employed. Besides, frequency counts, percentage, mean, standard deviation and descriptive statements were used to analyze the items of the questionnaire. The results are presented and discussed by categorizing some related questions together for the ease of understanding in to six main headings. Namely, students attitude toward physical education with reference to health, participation, enjoyment, curriculum, dissatisfaction and their physical education teachers. It is possible to conclude that physical education has a great role in keeping the individuals fit and healthy through participating in regular physical activities daily, it also contributes positively to improve relationships and training for leadership, the time and number of periods as well as extra-curricular activities related to Physical Education should be increased and provided so as to equip students with the necessary knowledge, skill and ethical value of the subject matter. Besides, it seems important that teachers should be required to create and use variety of teaching methods which are appropriate and enable encourage most students to participate and show their abilities and this initiative should include those students who wish to do physical activity for recreation and for enjoyment as well as for those who are members of the school team.
1.1. Background of the study
Researchers in the fields of health and physical education have recognized that the goals of public health and physical education are to get school children physically active and remain physically active through their adulthood (Corbin, 2001). In fact, the promotion of lifelong physical activity participation has been recognized as the ultimate goal of school physical education programs (Rink, 2006) and physical activity has been ranked top in the ten Leading Health Indicators (USDHHS, 2000). Despite all this, participation in all types of physical activity among children continues to decline strikingly as age or grade in school increases (Corbin et al., 2004) and more children are among the sedentary and/or obese category (CDC, 2007).
Identifying and understanding factors that associate with children’s physical activity participation are critical to promote current and lifelong physical activity participation of children (Salliset al., 2000). Among many factors, children’s attitudes are considered to be a key element influencing physical activity participation (Solmon,2003). Children who have more positive attitudes toward physical activity are reported to be more likely to participate in physical activity outside of school (Portman, 2003) and demonstrate higher physical activity amounts (Haggeret al., 2002) than those with less positive attitudes. According to a review of literature on children’s attitudes toward physical education/activity by Solmon (2003), child characteristics and contextual factors are two major factors that related to children’s attitudes. Child characteristics refer to chi1ldren’s age, gender, and sports skill.Contextual factors include the quality of physical education programs and accessibility of after school physical activities etc. With regard to child characteristics, elementary children are found to have more positive attitudes than secondary children (Lee, 2004) and children’s attitudes become less positive as they progress through their schooling (McKenzie, 2003). It is also found that elementary children express very favorable attitudes toward health, fitness, enjoyment, and social interaction benefits of physical activity, but do not enjoy physical activities involving hard practice and risk-taking movements (Patterson &Faucette, 1990). Younger children’s higher interests, values, and more positive attitudes toward physical activity, however, may not be realistic due to their low ability of self-evaluation. With regard to contextual factors, quality physical education (PE) programs have been reported to be a strong factor influencing children’s attitudes toward physical activity (Lee, 2004).
Children’s positive attitudes are likely to be linked with enjoyment, perceived usefulness of the curriculum, and a sense of belongingness (Subramaniam& Silverman, 2002). Curriculum with situational interest, such as those require students to analyze and design offensive and defensive strategies, may foster students’ interests in physical activity (Chen &Darst, 2001). A learning environment that promotes personal meaning is considered to be important to the development of positive attitude (Rink, 2006). Children are also likely to become more positive toward physical activity if they are in a learning environment that makes them comfortable and confident (Haggeret al., 2002). In terms of children’s negative attitudes associated with contextual factors, Carlson (1995) indicated that students become bored if there is a lack of challenge or repeat the same activities without taking children’s interests into account. Siedentop (2004) also argued that a multi-activity curriculum with a series of short-term units would negatively influence students’ attitudes.
Biddle and Chatzisarantis (1999) found that it is more difficult for students to maintain interests in traditional team sports than in individual sports or activities. Additionally, marginal status of PE in the school curriculum has a negative impact on students’ attitudes (Tannehillet al., 1994). Compared with research dealing with children’s physical activity levels, research addressing children’s attitudes toward physical activity is relatively scant, and most research targets elementary school children. As discussed previously, children at elementary schools tend to report inflated physical activity ability, interest, and attitude due to their limited developmental ability of self-evaluation (Ogden et al., 2006).
According to the findings of Abdullah and Fauzee (2002) physical activity can be very effective in improving the human respiratory system, while strengthening the heart muscle and increasing its volume is the benefits of physical activity. People with physical activity and those who exercise regularly are able to adopt an active lifestyle, have an attractive appearance and changes in mood and experience confidence. Physical activity can be described as an activity that involves stimulus throughout the body that results human skeleton muscles contraction and increases energy levels (Bouchard et al., 1990).
Silverman &Subramaniam (1999) pointed out that student perceptions and positive attitude towards physical activity is one of the important elements in evaluating the success of a physical education curriculum. Although everyone knows that sporting activities can enhance physical health and also is an entertainment, it is practically observed that majority of students are less interested to participate in either theoretical or practical regular physical education class.
According to (Lee, 2004), Secondary school students’ self-report, however, were more realistic. Thus, it would be meaningful to examine secondary school students’ attitudes toward physical education. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to investigate the present attitude and future view of students towards Health and Physical Education in some selected secondary schools in Addis Ababa; and to provide meaningful information about ways of developing positive attitude towards learning Health and Physical Education.
1.2. Statement of the problem
Many studies have been showing various possible determinant factors that might contribute for students’ attitude towards physical education.Thus, this study tries to investigate the attitude of students towards learning physical education in some selected secondary schools of Addis Ababa and suggest relevant ways and meanness of developing positive attitude of students toward learning Health and physical education.
1.3. Basic Research questions
- What are the students’ attitudes toward Physical education?
- What are the factors that influence the attitude of students toward learning physical education?
1.4. Objective of the study
1.4.1. General Objective of the study
The main objective of the study lies on investigating the present attitude and future view of students towards Health and physical education.
220.127.116.11. Specific Objective of the study
The investigation is intended to:-
- describe the attitude of students toward learning physical education.
- identify the factors that influence the attitude of students toward learning physical education
- suggest the ways and meanses of developing positive attitude toward learning physical education.
- Significance of the Study
This research is intended to give high lights on the attitude and future view of students toward Health and physical education. The researcher believes that the result of this study will have an important contribution for the concerned bodies in indicating the feelings of students and factors for their feelings so that they could take the possible measure accordingly.
- Delimitation of the Study
The study is limited to investigate the present attitude and future view of students toward health and physical education in Bole, Wondirad, Addis Ketema, Minilk and Balchabanebso secondary schools.
- Limitation of the Study
Due to material, time and money constraints, the study could not take the whole populationof students in the selected schools. Hence, the samples are taken from randomly selected students.
- Definition and explanation of terms and phrases
It is assumed that this would help the readers to infer different meaning and usage of words.
Attitude- “a positive or negative feeling effect associated with a specific Psychological object” (colliers Encyclopedia1975; 11:203).
Attitude change- Modification of an individuals’ general evaluative perception of a stimulus or set of stimuli.
Attitudinal factors- factors which are related with the students’ attitude towards health and physical education.
Attitudinal reaction- emotional feeling one tend to act towards something positively or negatively.
Attributes- the result of something advantageously or disadvantageously.
Affective- Behavior involving feelings and emotions as applied to self and others through movement; the feelings component.
Disposition- the outlook that one tends to act something based on his belief about it.
Cognitive- Behavior involving the relationship between mind and body; the knowledge component.
Foster- to accept something positively.
Future view- the way in which students accept something positively and trying to possess it in the coming years.
Motivation-“The combination of effort plus desire to achieve the goal of learning”(Spoisky, 1989).
Motor Skills- The experience of an individual to perform different physical activities.
Pertain- lead to something by knowing its reference and relate it with other thing.
Physical Activity- Bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle and substantially increases energy expenditure (US Dept. of Health and Human Services, 1996).
Physical Fitness- The body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively (Corbin, 2001).
Value- the degree of attitude given towards something either positively or negatively.
1.9. Organization of the Study
The content of the study is organized in to five chapters. Chapter one deals with background, statement of the problem, basic research questions , objectives of the study ,significance of the study, limitation and delimitation of the study, definition of terms used in the research document and organization of the study; Chapter two discusses about the relevant literature works of scholars; chapter three presents the research design and methodology of the study. Chapter four in its part reports the presentation, analysis and discussion of the study, and finally, chapter five presents the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. learning physical education