Repair And Maintenance Of Microscopes In Science Laboratory Department In Institute Of Management And Technology (I.M.T) Enugu

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Microscope is a device used for examining small objects and tiny living organisms like bacteria, fungi etc that cannot be seen with the naked eye.  The primary aim of this research work is to repair and give adequate maintenance of laboratory microscopes in Science Laboratory Technology Department in Institute of Management and Technology (I.M.T) Enugu.  This was achieved by replacing all the missing parts, lubricating the rusty parts.  If followed by cleaning the microscope with clean rag and checking all the functional parts to know whether there is any further mal functioning in the parts replaced, plugging it to the source of light electricity to ensure that is an good working orders.  Moreso, the lenses were cleaned with clean rag immersed in xylene and xylem oil.  Any finally coupled back for use.


CHAPTER ONE:         introduction

  1. Background Information                                                                   1
  2. Objective of the Study                                                             2
  3. Statement of Problems of the Study                                        3
  4. Justification of the Study                                                                  3
  5. Limitations of the Study                                                                   4

CHAPTER TWO:        Literature Review

  1. Historical Background                                                            5
  2. Theory of Microscope                                                             7
  3. Types of Microscope                                                               10
  4. Component Parts of Compound                                                       15

Microscope and their functions.

  1. Maintenance of Microscope                                                    17
    1. Rules for the care of Microscope                                             17
    2. Rules for the use of Microscope                                                        18


Study Methodology

  1. Study Area                                                                              19
  2. Assessment of Microscopes                                                    19
  3. Materials                                                                                 19
  4. Operational Techniques                                                          20

CHAPTER FOUR: Repairment And Maintenance

  1. Repairment of the Microscope                                                          22
  2. Maintenance of the Microscopes                                             23


Conclusion And Recommendations

  1. Conclusion and Recommendations   24
  2. Recommendation     25

References    26


Determination of magnification in a Compound Microscope

Assessment of five faulty microscopes

REPAIRMENT done in the microscopes.







The microscope is a vital instrument in a great variety of scientific and technical work, and is used by many who have otherwise no considerable acquaintance with optical instruments (Martin, 2006).  It is also defined as a device used for examining small objects and tiny living organisms like bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and virus which cannot be seen with the eye (Carpenter 2007).

Today both light and electron microscopes are used extensively in microbiology research.  Prokaryotic cells, nucleoids, large organelles of eukaryotic cells are seen by the use of light microscope.  Using electron microscope objects which are small as the single protein molecules are seen.  Microscopes are very important to microbiologists interested in the structure of living organisms.  A good microscope provides both increased magnification (increases the apparent size of an object) and resolution (increase the clarity of the image).  The ability of microscopes to make small details visible depends on the wavelength of the illumination used to view the object.  The smaller the wavelength, the smaller the details that can be seen.  The best light microscopes, using the shortest light waves in the blue range (wavelength about 450 nanometers), can reveal objects in the specimen as small as 0.2 micrometer.  The use of microscope is simple and straight forward, demanding no more than the observance of a few simple rules and the choice of a suitable system for observation and illumination (Howard, 2009).

The microscope is used in histological studies and study of microbiology in the Science Laboratory Department.  It is used to examine and determine the morphology or morphological characters of microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae and virus.  The election microscope is now used to examine a vast range of substances of organic and inorganic origin.  The microscopes are used for visualizing and measuring differences in phase or optical path in transparent or reflecting specimens.


1.2     Statement of Problems of the Study 

The full utilization of the microscope optical system numerical aperture when immersion objectives are used requires a double oiling technique in which immersion oil is applied to both the top and lower surfaces of the specimen slide. Placing immersion oil in the gaps between the objective and slide and between the condenser and slide provides a homogeneous optical medium from the condenser, through the specimen (in an appropriate mounting medium), and into the objective. Although the viscosity of immersion oil minimizes any immediate migration into unintended locations, if it is not removed promptly and is allowed to accumulate, the effects of gravity and capillary forces will ultimately result in the oil moving into parts of the substage mechanism and microscope stand, and perhaps even into the objective. This accumulation may not be readily visible, and can go unnoticed until mechanical or optical problems become severe enough to require service by a microscope repair facility. An especially serious problem that may plague microscope optical components is the development of fungal damage. Formation and growth of fungal colonies may occur rapidly in some climates, and when established on glass surfaces, it is unlikely that they can be removed before damage has been done to the surface. Unfortunately, fungal growth commonly occurs in the interior of optical components, and may be quite advanced before it is even noticed. At least one microscope manufacturer states that over 50 percent of deterioration in optical performance is attributable to cloudiness caused by certain fungus types. Although there are over 100,000 fungus species, two members of the genus Aspergillus are believed responsible for most lens deterioration. Optimum growth conditions for these fungi are relatively high temperature and high humidity, but they also are more adaptable to lower humidity levels than most other fungi. Figure 10 illustrates both the optimum and tolerable growth conditions for these fungi growing on lens surfaces, in comparison to the most favorable conditions for other common fungus species. Unfortunately, the conditions most conducive to proliferation of the lens-damaging fungi match very closely the most suitable environment for humans. This greatly complicates attempts to eliminate or inhibit growth of the fungi on optical components.



1.3     Objective of the Study   

The general objective of this study is to examine the repair and maintenance of microscopes in science laboratory department in institute of management and technology (I.M.T) Enugu



1.4     Justification of the Study    


This study will expose the method of repair and maintenance of microscopes. The correct utilization of immersion oil requires placing a single drop on the top lens surface of the substage condenser and another single drop on the top of the specimen slide. The condenser is then raised just to the point that the oil drop contacts the lower surface of the slide, and the objective front lens is brought into contact with the oil drop on top of the slide. It should be stressed that the oil immersion technique is only to be used with a condenser equipped with an immersion-type top lens, and with immersion objectives. Any attempt to improve the performance of a dry objective by application of immersion oil will likely result in its destruction, as such objectives are optimized optically for use in air, and are not sealed against the intrusion of fluids into the lens barrel. The results of this study will add to the existing literature and will as well provide reference materials for the academic society and further research.


1.5     Limitations of the Study    

The challenges that may pose a threat to this study include the following; fund to be able to assess materials even online and equally type the work, collections and retrieval of documents from archives and time constraints due to other academic pressure. However efforts will be made to address these problems or limitations.



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