THE INFLUENCE OF WESTERN TELEVISION PROGRAMMES ON THE CULTURAL VALUES OF GHANA YOUTHS
This study probes the impact which Tv has on the cultural values of the Nigeria youths. It specifically tackles the impact of western Tv programes on Nigeria University students. The research posits that the current trends in cultural behaviour of youths in Nigeria as observed among Caritas student Enugu is significantly associated with their perception of western culture and exposure to western Tv programmes. The assumption that foreign media content has direct powerful effects is shared by optimistic modernization theory. Lerner (1962) Rogers (1964) Schramm (1964) and the later critical perspective of cultural and media imperialism.
McPhail (1981), (1984) Gerbuer (1977). The research applies the theory of acculturation along with the culturation hypothesis. “Defluer and Dennis 1991, Garbner 1977, Morgan 1991” explains that acculturation of Nigeria youths take place as a result of exposure to western Tv which influence the perception of Tv reality and alters self-image.
From the review of related literature, the following hypotheses emerged for testing HI: More exposure to Tv will tend to identification of western television stars as models. H2: The improvement of Local Tv movies industries will increase Nigerian youths’ preference for local Tv product. Research hypotheses 1 and 2 received statistical support from the analysis of collected data using the survey research method Recommendations to check the cultural genocide for further research were preferred.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Significance of the Study
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Research Hypothesis
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
1.8 Assumption of the Study
1.9 Limitation of the Study
1.10 Conceptional and Operational Definition
2.1 Sources of Literature
2.2 Review of Relevant Literature
2.3 Theoretical Framework
2.4 Summary of the Literature
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Area of the Study
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Research Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument used for Data Collection
3.6 Validity of the Instrument
3.7 Method of Collecting Data
3.8 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Date Analysis and Presentation
4.2 Hypotheses Testing
4.3 Discussion of Findings
6.4 Suggestion for further Studies
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
This study is on The Influence Of Western Television Programmes On The Cultural Values Of Nigerian Youths using Caritas University Students as a case study. The term culture has been defined differently by different people. The different definitions attached to culture are based on the differences in the orientation of the people.
According to Ekeh (1989), culture is construct used in an attempt to analyze and integrate events and ideas in broad spectrum of areas of society. Jekayinka (2002), states that from wider perspective, culture includes the total repertoire of human action which are socially transmitted from generation to generation. Obiora (2002), says the transformation of culture is gradual and not sudden. He (2002), contends that culture is a continuous process of change. It changes exactly the same way as the human being change. It is dynamic, learned, acquired, transmitted or diffused through contact or means of communication flow from generation to another. The Nigerian culture is observed to be fading out as a result of the acceptance and adaptation of the modernist’s solution on to underdevelopment. One of such theories which relates to this subtle method of assault international communication is given by Lerner (1956).
In his concept of “empathy”, Lerner states that the inhabitants of third world nations must learn to empathize with the West for modern transformation of their societies to be possible. Schramm (1964), on the other hand, developed an interesting model in which he equates the level of social development of communication to various nations. Access to these modern mass media (Radio, Television, films, telephone, and newspapers) is linked to individual modernity. Nigeria and other third world countries have reacted to these finding by inventing a substantial amount of their foreign exchange earnings to import radio and television transmitters and sets. The television programmes especially provides many powerful models for children and abundant opportunities for observational learning.
The television programmes include:
1. Depiction of sex
3. Drug and Alcohol used
a. Vulgar Language – behaviours. Etc. that most parents do not want their children to imitate.
Studies have been found by early adolescence that the average Nigerian children have watched thousands of dramatized murders and countless other acts of violence on television (www.encarta.com). For many years, psychologists have debated the question of whether watching violence on Tv have detrimental effects on children. A number of experiments both inside and outside the laboratory have found evidence that viewing Tv violence is relayed to increased aggression in children.
Nigerians as exemplified by trends in Enugu Metropolis where Western exports of television entertainment, information are shown in NTA Enugu, ESBS Television, Minaj Channel, Cartoon Network, ESPN –“Expanded Sports programmes Network” channel provided by various satellite transmission operators as DSTV, Multi – Choice, Music television, Euro – sports, etc. Have raised Nigerians eyebrows to such Western television programmes. Thereby, making them to behave like them, associate with them and even speaks like them. Even our generation that is shown on NTA Enugu and the youth perspective on ESBS are presented by youth and replete with music video of Western origin dominated by rape stars as (Late) Tupac, Beyonce, Ashanti, 50- Cent, Sean Paul, Kelly Rowland, Celine Dion, etc. It is the researcher’s believe that western television especially American television exports have a strategic “weapon” aimed to over power the cultural values of Nigerian youths.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
The influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of Nigerian youths have been said to be a serious problem facing Nigerians. Some of these problems are:
1. Inadequate policy to guard the youths towards Western Tv programmes.
2. There is an erosion of the cultural values.
3. The imitation of Western cultures especially the American cultures.
4. The Nigerian youths are faced with brain wash.
Therefore, if the above problems are not been taking care off, it will lead to a total destruction of the Nigerians culture.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The researcher’s objective is to conduct an in-depth research on the influence of Western television programmes on the cultural values of the Nigerian youths with an insight to determine its implication to the cultural values of Nigerian youths are:
1. To show how the contents of Western television programme affects Nigerian University students.
2. To examines its pervasive impact on the cultural values of Nigerian University student.
3. To know how to isolate Western television programmes from Nigeria.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. The research will help in possible dilution, domination and finally absorption of the African/Nigerian culture which until the present has been characterized with good neighbourliness, respect for elders, virtuousness, community orientation and collectivism.
2. It will enable the government and policy makers to put adequate measures in place to check the movement of Western television programmes into Nigeria.
3. It will help remove the idea of imitating Western cultures or ways of life from Nigeria.
4. The conduct of this research will enable the government to know what role the media can play in the development of a country and therefore, harness the mass media especially Tv in the democratic process and development process in general.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research questions are arranged questions meant to be asked by the researcher and receives a feedback (answer) from a respondent. For a researcher to achieve her aim, the following question should be used.
1. Do Nigerian youths expose themselves more to Tv than other media?
2. Do they prefer Western Tv programmes to locally produced ones and why if yes?
3. Do Nigerian youths identify more with locally or foreign Tv stars as models?
4. Will improvement of local Tv/movies industries improve Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
1. Hi: More exposure to Tv lead to identification of Western
Tv stars as models
Ho: More exposure to Tv do not lead to identification of
Western Tv stars as models.
2. Hii: The improvement of local Tv /movies industries will
increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.
Ho: The improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will not
increase Nigerian youths preference for local Tv product.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is to find out how the Western Television Programmes affect the Cultural Values of Nigerian Youths using Caritas University as a case study.
The institution is been noted for a constant influence of Western television programs on their cultural values. Hence, the need for choosing the institution as a case study commenced.
In the cause of the research, oral interview were consulted on both staffs and students of the institution. But the research depends more on the questionnaire which were distributed to students and staffs and were completed and returned. The researcher also consulted some textbooks, Newspapers and journals which provided a lot of information pertaining to the study.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
The following were the assumption of this study:
1. A greater number of Nigerian University Students watch Tv.
2. Western Tv programmes have a greater appeal to Nigerian University Students than locally produced programmes.
3. That the programmes contents of Western Tv project symbiotic forms of social reality.
4. The Western Tv is having a greater acculturation on Nigerian University Students in particular and on Nigerian youths in general.
5. That the improvement of local Tv/ movies industries will change Nigerian youthsattitudes towards Western Tv programmes.
1.9 CONCEPTIONAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS.
Conceptual: It means young men and women.
Operational: It is defined as students in various Universities in Nigeria and who fall between the ages of 15 -30
Conceptual: The means of giving news and opinions to large number of people.
Operational: The media is operationalised as Tv. Broadcast used to generate or circulate information to the public.
3. Cultural identify:
Conceptual: it is the self definition, self perception and self- image of a person as a member of a group exhibiting uniform culture that are consistent with the values of that group.
Operational: It is those commonly shares socio-political interpretation and meanings related to the beliefs, norms, values, attitudes and behaviours within Nigeria.
4. Cultural dominance:
Conceptual: This refers to nations of neocolonialism that uses policy and practice that have effect to dominate the culture and affairs of less developed countries.
Operational: it means the conscious and unconscious domination by Western Tv media on the media system of Nigeria.