Availability and utilization of educational resources in influencing students performance in secondary schools

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AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN INFLUENCING STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ……………………………………………………………………………i
Declaration …………………………………………………………………………..ii
Dedication ……………………………………………………………………………iii
Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………iv
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………..v
List of Tables……………………………………………………………………….ix
List of Figures……………………………………………………………………………x
Abbreviations and Acronyms………………………………………………………….xi
Abstract………………………………………………………………………….........xii
CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
1.1Background to the Study …………………………………………………………….1
1.2Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………7
1.3 Purpose of the Study……………………………………………………………......8
1.4 Objectives of the Study …………………………………………………………….8
1.5Research Questions …………………………………………………………………8
1.6Basic Assumptions of the Study …………………………………………………….9
1.7Limitations of the Study ……………………………………………………………9
1.8Delimitations of the Study………………………………………………………….9
1.9Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………10
1.10 Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………..10
1.11 Conceptual Framework …………………………………………………………….11
1.12 Definitions of Terms………………………………………………………………..14

 

CHAPTER TWO:

 

LITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1Introduction ………………………………………………………………………..15
2.2Availability of Physical and Material Resources in Secondary Schools ……………..15
2.3Utilization of Physical and Material Resources for Effective Teaching and Learning and
Student Performance ……………………………………………………………… …….19
2.4Financing Secondary Education in Africa  …………………………………………23
2.6Summary …………………………………………………………………………..26

 

CHAPTER THREE:

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

3.1.Introduction…………………………………………………………………………28
3.2.Research Design and Methodology …………………………………………………28
3.3.Location of the Study………………………………………………………………..28
3.4.Target Population …………………………………………………………………..29
3.5.Sample and Sampling Procedures …………………………………………………..29
3.6.Research Instruments   …………………………………………………………….31
3.7. Piloting …………………………………………………………………………….31
3.7.1. Validity ……………………………………………………………………………32
3.7.2. Reliability …………………………………………………………………………32
3.8.Data Collection Procedures…………………………………………………………..33
3.9.Data Analysis Plan …………………………………………………………………..33
3.10. Ethical Considerations ……………………………………………………………..34

 

CHAPTER FOUR:

 

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

 

4.1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….35
4.2.Descriptions of Respondents involved in the Study…………………………………..   36
4.3.Status of Physical and Material Resources in Secondary Schools in
Mbeere South Embu County………………………………………………………..36
4.3.1Status of Textbooks in the Sampled Schools ………………………………………..   36
4.3.2Status of Library in the Sampled Schools …………………………………………..41
4.3.3Status of laboratories in the Sampled Schools ………………………………………43
4.4.Students and Teachers Effective Utilization of the Available Text Books,
Laboratories and Libraries……………………………………………………………45

 

4.4.1. Utilization of Text Books by Students ……………………………………………….    51

 

4.4.2. Utilization of Text Books by Teachers ………………………………………………..    52

 

4.4.3. Utilization of Libraries  ……………………………………………………………        53

 

4.4.4 Utilization of Laboratories    …………………………………………………………        55

 

4.5 Government  Funding of Educational Resources in Secondary Schools ……….58
CHAPTER FIVE:
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………61
5.2. Summary of the Findings …………………………………………………………62
5.2.1. The Status of Physical and Material Resources in Secondary Schools in
Mbeere South Embu County……………………………………….…………..63

 

5.2.2. Effective Utilization of Text Books, Libraries and Laboratories by Teachers and Student in Secondary Schools in Mbeere South Embu County…………………………… 64

5.2.3 Effectiveness of Governmental Funding in Inquisition of Educational Resources in Secondary Schools in Mbeere South Embu County .. ………………………………..65

5.3. Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………..    66

5.4. Recommendations ……………………………………………………………………   67

5.5. Recommendations for Further Research ……………………………………………..    67

 

REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………..  68

 

APPENDICES

Appendix i: Questionnaire for the Principal’s ………………………………………….           81

Appendix ii: H.O. D. Science Questionnaire……………………………………………… 85

Appendix iii : H.O.D Languages Questionnaires ………………………………………….  90

Appendix iv: English Language Lesson Observation Schedule…………………………94
Appendix v: A Questionnaire for form Three Students  …………………………………96
Appendix vi: Checklist Of Physical Resources in Secondary Schools …………………100

 

Appendix vii Text Books Recommended English Language ……………..........................    101

 

Appendix viii: Physics Text Books………………………………......................................    102

 

Appendix ix: Chemistry Text Books …………………………………………………….103
Appendix x: Biology Text Books ………………………………………………………104

 

Appendix xi: General Science Text Books……………….…..............................................    105

Appendix xii: List of Mbeere South District Schools ……………..................................        106

 

LIST OF TABLE
Table 1.1: Student K.C.S.E.Performance ……………………………………..6
Table 3.1: Sample Grid …………………………………………………….30
Table 4.1: Principal’s Assessment of Sharing of Textbooks ………………..37
Table 4.2: Students Textbook Ratio . ……………………………………...38
Table 4.3:H.O.D’s Science Assessment of  Sharing Textbooks Among
Student ……………………………………………………………39
Table 4.4: H.O.D’s Languages Assessment of Sharing Textbooks Among
Student in the Department………………………………………….40
Table 4.6: Status of Laboratories in the Sampled Schools ………………………….44
Table 4.7: Principal’s Assessment of Availability of the Libraries in their Schools..46
Table 4.8: H.O.D’s Languages Assessment of the Availability of Libraries ………47
Table 4.9: Most Commonly Used Textbooks in Sciences ………………………...48
Table 4.10: Most Commonly Used Textbooks in English Language …………….50
Table 4.11: Utilization of Textbooks by Students ……………………………………..51
Table 4.12: Principal’s Assessment of Textbooks Utilization by Teachers……………52
Table 4.13: Utilization of Libraries by Principal’s HOD’s Languages and Students ……53
Table 4.14: Principal’s Assessment of Utilization of Laboratories ……………………. .55

 

Table 4.15: Student’s Utilization of Laboratories ………………………………………..   57

 

Table 4.16 : Sources of Funds in Secondary Schools… ………………..………………...  59

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1            : Interaction of Students/Teachers with Educational Resources………..         13

F.S.E             - Free Secondary Education

S.E.B.F       - Secondary Education Bursary Fund

F.P.E            - Free Primary Education

H.O.D        - Head of Department

K.C.S.E    - Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education

CDF  -    Constituency Development Fund

 

ABSTRACT

 

Educational system in Kenya is examination oriented where passing of examination is the only benchmark for performance. Availability and utilization of physical and material resources like libraries, laboratories and textbooks play an important role in the achievement of educational goals and objectives and students performance. Several studies have revealed that material and physical resources are inadequate in secondary schools in Kenya which may be contributing to students poor performance. Through CDF and subsidized secondary education introduced in 2008, the government has been providing finances to all secondary to acquire educational resources.. The objectives of this study was to find out the status of material and physical resources in secondary schools: to determine how effectively students and teachers utilize the available textbooks, laboratories and libraries in influencing students performance: to determine to what extent Governments funding has contributed to availability of educational resources in secondary schools. A survey design was used in this study because it helped the researcher to describe the existing conditions and make inferences related to this study. The target population for the study comprised 34 secondary schools in Mbeere South Embu county with a total population of 6403 students, 34 principals 68 H.O.Ds (languages and sciences). Stratified sampling was used to sample public schools in girls, boys boarding and mixed day to avoid bias of sampling one type of school and to determine whether there are variations in availability and utilization of educational resources in the different categories of schools. The study sample comprised of 3 boys (100%), 4 girls (67%) boarding and 8 mixed (30.8%) day secondary schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample15 principals (45.5%), 30 H.O.Ds (45.5%), while simple random sampling technique using lottery was used to sample1 form 3 English language class, and 15 students in form 3 class in each category of schools. Questionnaires, lesson observation schedule and checklist were used to collect data. Piloting of instruments was done in two schools which were not included in the study. Content Validity of the instruments was determined by employing the expertise of my supervisors and lecturers at the department, while reliability was determined through test-retest method. Data was coded and keyed in the computer for analysis using the (SPSS). Qualitative data was analyzed thematically according to objectives and presented in narration form according to objectives. Quantitative data were analyzed by use of descriptive statistics such as averages, percentages, mean and range. The findings were presented using frequency distribution tables. The study found out that the text books were not sufficient but there was no acute shortage since a text book could be shared by a considerable number of students in all categories of schools. This implies that the subsidized secondary education had contributed towards availability of text books. The study also found out that Library services were largely inadequate in almost all the secondary schools with only 1boys (33.3 %) and 1 girls school (25%) having 1 library each and none in the 8 mixed (87%)sampled secondary schools The subsidized secondary education and CDF had not significantly contributed to availability of libraries in secondary schools. As far as laboratories are concerned all the girls and boys boarding schools had at least two laboratories (53.3%) and 6 mixed schools 40% had 1 laboratory each. Available text books were utilized by students in reading ahead of the teachers, writing notes among others while teachers utilized textbooks in preparation of lessons, giving assignments and setting exams in all categories of schools. However, unavailability of textbooks hindered utilization especially in mixed day schools. Utilization of library services was hindered by lack of libraries and inadequate learning materials. Utilization of laboratories was hampered by inadequate laboratories and equipment which made teachers to demonstrate to students rather than students doing experiments on their own especially in mixed day schools. Inadequate educational resources may have contributed to poor performance especially in mixed day schools among other factors. Government funding was found to be inadequate.

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