AWARENESS AND USE OF ELECTRONIC RECORDS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND ADMINISTRATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN NIGERIA TECHNOLOGICAL HEALTH CARE SERVICES
The study examined awareness and use of electronic records management for administrative effectiveness in Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria Hospital (FAAN). The study employed the survey design and the purposive sampling technique to select 450 staff across management, senior and junior level. A well-constructed questionnaire, which was adjudged valid and reliable, was used for collection of data from the respondents. The data obtained through the administration of the questionnaires was analyzed using the Pearson correlation analysis. The results showed that there is positive and significant relationship between electronic records management and administrative effectiveness (r=0.772; p<0.05). This implies that electronic records management is a crucial factor and strong predictor of administrative effectiveness in federal airport authority in Nigeria hospital (FAAN).
The study hereby concluded that There is significant awareness of electronic records management on administrative effectiveness among federal airport authority of Nigeria hospital(FAAN hospital) staffs.
The study suggested that; The hospitals need to fully utilize ERMS or move to EDRMS, to save retrieval time, save filing space, save stationery such as toner and blank paper, pave a way to paperless offices and avoid users queuing for one file, allow maximum communication with users, low medical errors, low costs, and timely access to information, accurate data and high physical efficiency; The hospital need to use ERM for business processes improvement, minimise shortage of filing space, missing and misfiling, resolve damage to records and shortage of staff; The hospitals need to upgrade and use the existing servers as a storage media for complete electronic patient records keeping; They also need to make available disaster backup for recovery in case it is affected by disaster like fire and water; They need to maintain the antivirus as they used Symantec endpoint protection; The system used for electronic records management in hospitals need to cover all patient details, instead of only personal and financial details of the patients. Since the system has a provision to cover all the details, the hospital officials like doctors, nurses, pharmacists and clinical support staff need to use it through those available system functionalities.
1.1 Background of the study
In this modern age, the exponential increase of information volume has transformed the manner in which organizations, both public and private in carrying out their businesses, (Turney, Robinson, Lee & Soutar, 2009). Significant changes have taken place in the nature of the information being generated, stored, processed and distributed (Asogwa, 2013; Muaadh & Zawiyah, 2015). Although technology can help to manage the creation and the processing of information, if used without understanding the records and information management principle, will only invite haphazard effect (Mnjama & Wamukoya, 2008)
Records management is very important for the public sector since it serves as an important tool for good business governance and efficient administration. Records provide information for improved planning and decision-making. Records also provide evidence for government accountability and transparency, and are often subject to specific legal requirements. In government bodies, records document what is done when, why and also provide evidence of communications, decisions and actions. In the process, some of the records the government officers make will be retained as national and provincial archives, (Bhana, 2008).
Health records in manual or automated form, houses the medical information that describes all aspects of patient care. It is an essential tool in running the day to day activities of the organization. It is needed in carrying out business operations in offices, hospitals of private and public sector organizations. (Huffman 1994). The introduction of information technologies into business, health institutions and government has resulted in an information explosion, and caused an increase in records volume of incredible proportions. Hospitals and offices are most affected by this growth since much of the information is channeled into business, health care and government offices in the form of records for administrative effectiveness.
The records managers and other category of staff in all the establishments, private or public health institutions and government offices need records and archives for planning, decision making and control. No organization can succeed in the present day business environment that is characterized with uncertainty, high risk, denial and increase crime rate, without functioning records and archive managements. Majority of the information needed for the smooth running of an organization are buried in the internally and externally generated records. Records are the corporate memory of the organization that created them and they are used to supplement human memory. Records is a documented evidence of our daily activities, it is a document, regardless of form or medium created, received, maintained and used by an organization (public or private) or an individual in pursuance of legal obligation, or in the transaction of business of which it forms a part or provides an evidence.(Popoola 2000). Records is a written account of facts, events, official facts written down at the time they occurred, and stored or preserved in writing as authentic evidence, set down in writing for future reference, preserve for use by writing or in other ways e.g. on a disc and other electronic media. It can also be likened to a history book which contains facts of past and present events which would be referred to by future generation. (Akanji 1994).
Health information is one of the key factors that contribute to the strengthening of health care delivery in every country. Reliable health information leads to timely health policies and planning, which improves the general health status of a country, as well as, serving as a vital element for individual health facilities in managing and improving healthcare delivery (Teviu, Aikins, Abdulia, et al., 2012).
The role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in improving the general management of health information cannot be downplayed. This is affirmed by the ability of ICTs to capture, store, retrieve, analyze and transmit large volumes of health information across various locations (Norman, Aikens & Binka, 2011). The adoption of ICTs in healthcare delivery, which could generally be referred to as e-health, has not only been crowed generally as eminent in improving the reliability and effectiveness of health information, but it has also been gloated for strengthening healthcare delivery systems through its various tailor-made innovative applications and program such as the electronic health records (Yusif & Soar, 2014).
Electronic health record (EHR) systems, which have the potential of improving the quality and reliability of health information and communication and the overall quality of healthcare services, are also not left out in the ICT implementation in the Nigerian healthcare system. EHR systems such as Health Administration Management System (HAMS), District Health Information System (DHIS), District Health Information Management System (DHIMS), Health Information Management systems (HIMS) and Hospital administration Management Systems are some of the implemented electronic health records system (Afrikumah, 2014; IICD, 2014). Although, some of these systems such as the DHIS and DHIMS are implemented nationwide to generate health information to facilitate health policies and interventions, systems such as HAMS, Health fore and IHOST; most of them are locally produced, are implemented in individual health institutions in the country to help improve their health records and address some of the challenges faced with the paper-based records (IICD, 2014).
Electronic Records Management (ERM) has become mandatory for government agencies in applying electronic records in administration to encourage E- government. Most organizations have huge allocation for ICT development. Mismanagement of records seems to be the main problem caused by poor recordkeeping and lack of attention. Umi & Zawiyah (2009) reported that not all government departments possess electronic records management policy; some electronic records are far from complete, clear or easy to access. Many organizations are carrying out electronic records management without any policy in place. Rick (2006) found that records and information are not managed as agency business assets. Records management is not viewed as critical to agency mission or incorporated into automated business processes in a timely manner. There is a low support for records management that has led to a lack of training, tools, and guidelines for all staff, as well poor integration of records management and Information Technology (IT) disciplines.
The lack of awareness among administrators has made it difficult to establish electronic records management programme. Staff are not fully informed and trained about electronic records management. This has led to a lack of training, tools, and guidance for all staff, as well poor integration of records management and Information Technology (IT) disciplines. According to Raja Abdullah Yaacob (2007), policies, standard and procedures are vital to ensure records management program can be implemented efficiently and effectively in organizations. However, less attention was given to records management although records and information management is an important element to help improve the performance, accountability and transparency of an organization (Umi & Zawiyah, 2009). In addition, Ahmad and Othman (2006) reported that one of the challenges in e-government is some government department do not recognize ICT expenditure as an investment. This will create a barrier for implementation of the ERM in organization.
1.2 Statement of the problem
The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its associated facilities have grown rapidly in the provision and delivery of healthcare services over the last few decades. Paper-based records are fast giving way to electronic health records (EHR) in most developed countries and crawling gradually into the developing countries. The EHR is designed to alleviate the limitations associated with the paper record system and help improve the quality of care delivered (Tang & McDonald, 2006; Meum, Wangensteen, Soleng, & Wynn, 2011). A study conducted by More (1990) revealed that, the implementation of large-scale information technology projects such as EHRs were associated with a 30% or higher failure rate. This challenge can be said to be even higher in developing countries (Vargneses & Scotte, 2004). Organizational and human factors are noted to contribute immensely to this challenge and not limited to technological factors (Gagnon, Duplantie, Fortin, & Landry, 2006; Obstfelder, Engeseth, & Wynn, 2007).
In manual records, it is also established that the greatest issue is lack of space for the increasing number of health records. With concern to physical space for storage of paper health records, it has been a challenge that many institutions keep battling with. Hospitals producing hundreds to thousands of records each day means that after a given period of time the records accumulate huge volumes of paper records. This may bring about difficulty in locating some records and also lack of sufficient space to carry all the records before they are disposed. This becomes the major challenge for paper records. Hence, there is need for the awareness and effective use of electronic records management system for administrative effectiveness in Nigerian technological health care services.
1.3 Objective of the study
The main objective of this study is examine the awareness and use of electronic records management system and administrative effectiveness in Nigerian technological health care services.
The specific objectives are to:
- Assess the electronic records management at the Federal Airport Authority in Nigeria Hospital.
2. Examine the level of records management awareness among the staff of Federal Airport Authority in Nigeria hospital in using electronic records management.
3. Determine the level of administrative effectiveness
1.4 Research Questions
- Does FAAN hospital assess there electronic records management?
2. What is the FAAN hospital staffs level of records management awareness in using electronic records management?
3. Does electronic records management determine the level of administrative effectiveness in FAAN?
1.4 Research Hypothesis
H0: The is no significant awareness of electronic records management on administrative effectiveness among federal airport authority of Nigeria hospital(FAAN hospital) staffs.
1.5 Significance of the study
The study will be very significant to different stakeholders. The study will help management of Federal Airport authority hospital sensitize the administrative staff on the importance of effective records management practices. Again, the study will benefit the management of FAAN hospital to appreciate the challenges associated with records management and how to address them.
It would also help students and the general public to know the importance of proper records management especially with the use of electronic record management. Furthermore, the study will help reveal the need for good records management for effective planning of FAAN hospital to ensure rapid growth and development.
Also, the study will help in providing the government with quick and accurate data for effective policy formulation and regulation. Lastly, it will also add to the body of knowledge in the area of records management of health care services.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study focuses on awareness and use of electronic records management and administrative effectiveness in Nigerian Technological health care services. Specifically, the study covers the federal airport authority of Nigeria hospital. In terms of variable scope, the study will cover three variables, namely: awareness on electronic record management, use of electronic record management and administrative effectiveness.
1.7 Definitions of terms
Records is a written account of facts, events, official facts written down at the time they occurred, and stored or preserved in writing as authentic evidence, set down in writing for future reference, preserve for use by writing or in other ways by the staff of FAAN hospital.
Electronic records: refer to records that are dependable on relevant machines for access or reading that is computer hardware and software such as e-mails, database and word processing.
Records management: is the task of ensuring that recorded information, paper and electronic, is managed economically and efficiently.
Electronic record management system (ERM): is an automated information system for the organized collection, processing, transmission, and dissemination of information in accordance with defined procedures.
FAAN Hospital: Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria Hospital