EXAMINE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE CRIME OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
1.1 Background to the Study
One of the most fundamental root causes of Nigeria‟s socio-political and socio-economic problems is the problem of corruption . Nigeria is a country richly endowed by God with abundant human and natural resources in proportion enough to develop the country to becoming one of the most prosperous in the world. Unfortunately however, fifty five years since independence, the country has continued to crawl and remained largely underdeveloped. The indices of development are near absent in the country. In the early 1960s, along with Malaysia, Brazil and India, Nigeria was expected to emerge as one of the leading economies of the world at the turn of the twenty first century . While Malaysia, Brazil and India have almost achieved their potentials, Nigeria has hardly gotten off the blocks3. Today, inspite of the huge investment of government in the energy sector, power supply is still epileptic, the education sector is in shambles, infrastructure are crippled, social values are almost extinct, the economy is in shambles and poverty is pervasive. While the majority of Nigerians continue to live in abject poverty only an insignificant minority live in opulence.
Corruption has resulted in loss of revenue to the government. In 2015, a former National
Security Adviser to former President Goodluck Jonathan was arrested and is being investigated
for misappropriating the sum of 2.1 billion United States Dollars (USD) security vote . This amount could buy for the Nigerian Armed Forces 751,384 M762 Automatic Rifles, 4,070,000
AK47 Rifles, 2,035 T-72 Armoured Tanks, 222 AH-1 Cobra Helicopters and 145 F-7 NI
Bomber Jets6. Also in 2016 the Nigerian Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (NEITI)
2013 Audit Report on Nigeria Oil and Gas and the Solid Minerals Sectors was released. The
Audit uncovers 2.23 trillion naira lost in unremitted revenues by the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation in 2013 .
When tax payers evade paying taxes, when goods are allowed to be smuggled into or out of the country and when public funds are embezzled, the government loses a lot of revenue. By the same token, when invoices and contracts are inflated or when names of ghost workers are smuggled into government pay rolls, government is drawn into excessive spending.
In a nut shell it is estimated that Nigeria has lost 400 billion United States Dollars (USD) to corruption since independence in 1960. The loss of revenue by government has a telling effect on the economy of the nation as it undermines macro-economic stability as government is not able to build or develop the infrastructure necessary to support macro-economic activities.
Igwenyi aptly captures the picture when he stated:
The greatest effect of corruption on the nation is in the area of economic dislocation. Taxes, profits and all other manner of revenue which ought to legitimately accrue to the government are directed to private pockets and institutions. As a result, infrastructural amenities such as water, electricity, road and other good things of life which ought to be provided for the average Nigerian cannot be provided.
In Nigeria, even the nation‟s political leaders admit that systemic corruption has inflicted economic costs on the country by stalling her economic growth . Zimako also drives the point that in countries perceived to be corrupt, foreign investment is lower and that this condition impedes the chances of economic growth and development
Corruption has also grown to stigmatize Nigeria as the country has attracted to itself an unenviable reputation in the globe as a very corrupt nation. For instance Powel, one time
American Secretary of State in an interview on his perception of Nigeria, said “… and what they could have done with their wealth over the last 20 years they just pissed it away. They just tend not to be honest, Nigerians as a group frankly, are marvelous scammers. I mean, it is their national character” Similarly, the United States Republican Party Presidential Candidate in the
2016 General Elections Trump was reported to have stated the following words about Nigeria:
We need to get the Africans out. Not the blacks, the Africans, especially the Nigerians. They are everywhere….Why can‟t they stay in their own country? Why? I‟ll tell you why. Because they are corrupt. Their governments are so corrupt; they rob the people blind and bring it all here to spend. And their people run away and come down here and take our jobs. We can‟t have that. If I become President, we‟ll send them all home. We‟ll build a wall at the Atlantic Shore. Then maybe we‟ll re-colonise them because obviously they did not learn a damn thing from the British.
While it is true that corruption is not peculiar to Nigeria but is a global phenomenon, however, the sheer magnitude of the problem in Nigeria is alarming. Whereas in the past, corruption was found mostly in the public service, today the problem has eaten deep into almost every fabric of National life in Nigeria. Today in Nigeria, almost everything can be “settled”. Election results are settled, Court judgments are settled, examination results are settled, the Police are settled and even more alarming now, the Military which in the past epitomized discipline, rectitude and professionalism are settled. Examples of the above submissions abound in the country but a few will suffice. On 11 June, 2016 the Nigeria Army retired about 47 Officers who were found to have been compromised by some Politicians to be partisan during the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria . Also in 2011, the then President of the Court of Appeal of Nigeria alleged pressure on him by the then Chief Justice of Nigeria to interfere in the Sokoto State Governorship Election Petition Tribunal by disbanding the panel. The aim was to tamper with the pending judgment of the tribunal . More worrisome also is that corruption has now crawled into religion in Nigeria. In the past few years, many religious organizations and worship centers have sprang up in Nigeria. The expectation would be that with the rise in religious activities in Nigeria, the Country would experience renewed moral and ethical rebirth and discipline. Regrettably however, the Country has continued to sink deeper into decadence and infamy. It is now apparent that religion is also a tool for corruption and exploitation in Nigeria. Many worship centers are opened not with the aim of preaching salvation to lost souls but with the aim of fleecing innocent citizens of their hard earned resources. Furthermore, many Clerics in the Country who in the past openly rebuked corrupt citizens and served as checks to the excesses of Public Officers and Government Official(s) are now largely compromised. For instance during the period of the 2015 General Election in Nigeria, some Pastors under the aegis of the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) were accused of receiving bribe of Seven Billion Naira from one of the political parties in the Country to campaign against its main political opponent. It is now common in Nigeria to see Clerics driving exotic cars and living in opulent houses in choice areas of the nation‟s cities while many of their followers wallow away in abject poverty.
From a historical perspective, the problem of corruption is not a new phenomenon in Nigeria. Before the amalgamation of 1914, Nigeria did not exist as a country. It evolved from the different Empires, Kingdoms and Chiefdoms which existed before the advent of colonialism. Many of these Empires and Kingdoms grappled with the problem of corruption notably amongst their Rulers and Nobles. Some of these Rulers and Nobles were accused of using the public treasury to finance opulent and ostentatious lifestyles . It was not only the Rulers and Nobles that stained themselves with corruption. The rich and powerful people also used their wealth to pervert the cause of justice . The vibrancy of the Jihad movement which Shehu Usman Dan Fodio led in 1806 had one of its anchors in the problem of corruption in the society
Soon after his inauguration as President on May 29, 1999, Olusegun Obasanjo identified corruption as a monster that must be fought to a standstill in Nigeria. He made Anti-Corruption crusade a fundamental policy of his administration. In furtherance of this objective, the administration presented the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Bill to the National Assembly which was passed into law .
The regime also established the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) . Soon after its establishment, the EFCC effected the arrest of known fraudsters many of whom had hitherto assumed a larger than life status. In view of the personalities arrested, a source in the EFCC was quoted to have said that the Commission does not care about the status or pedigree of suspects and that once a person is found to be culpable, such person will be treated according to the law . Also in March, 2005, the EFCC arrested some high ranking members of the Executive Arm of Government and the National Assembly for their involvement in a 50 million Naira bribe for budget scandal . Irked by the personalities involved in the bribe for budget scandal, President Obasanjo said he would not hesitate to take on more prominent Nigerians in his war against corruption. He acknowledged that corruption was endemic in the developing countries particularly Nigeria and vowed to step on more toes44.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Inspite of the vast resources that abound in Nigeria, poverty has continued to fester in the country. In 2013, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) reported that Nigeria which was ranked 153 out of 186 countries assessed , was not one of the countries recording remarkable improvements in its Human Development Index . It was stated in that report that 68.0 percent of Nigerians were living below 1.25 USD daily . This report came despite the reported growth in Nigeria‟s economy with the country recording a GDP growth rate of 6.99 in the fourth quarter of 2012 . In the 2014 UNDP HDR, Nigeria did not achieve any meaningful improvement as the country was ranked 152 out of 187 countries assessed . The report observed the disparity between economic growth in the country and welfare indicators.  As of 2015, the number of Nigerians living below poverty line was  million out of a population of about 170 million55. What this means is that as of 2015, 64.7 percent of Nigerians were living below poverty line. The significance of the above problem can better be appreciated when considered against the backdrop that the potential for Nigeria to be prosperous exists in the country. The country is reputed with the largest Agricultural output on the African continent and number 25 in the world56and also earns 57 billion USD annually in oil revenues57. The question thus is: how can a nation be so blessed with enormous resources and potential and yet the vast majority of its people live in poverty and its infrastructure is either undeveloped or in a state of decay? The answer to this question largely lies at the door step of corruption. Corruption is a social problem and without a doubt it constitutes one of the greatest obstacles to the prosperity of Nigeria. Realizing that corruption is a clog to development, successive Nigerian governments have over the years taken measures to arrest the trend. To this end, several legislation were enacted and institutional frameworks set up to combat the problem of corruption in the country.
Despite the avalanche of legislation and the institutional framework to combat corruption in Nigeria, corruption has over the years not abated and is still pervasive in the country in both the private and public sectors and even amongst the common people on the streets. This research therefore seeks to answer the following questions:
- What provisions of the extant laws in Nigeria inhibit the fight against corruption in the country?
- What has been the efficacy of the Institutions established to combat corruption in Nigeria in curbing corruption in the country?
- What are the challenges to the fight against corruption in Nigeria?
1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Research
The aim of this Research is to enhance a sustainable fight against corruption in Nigeria by evaluating the Legal and Institutional frameworks on corruption in the country with a view to ascertaining their efficacies or otherwise in curbing corruption in the country.
The objectives of this Research are:
- To highlight the provisions of the extant laws in Nigeria which inhibit the fight against corruption in the country;
- To examine whether the Institutions established to combat corruption in Nigeria have been efficacious in curbing corruption in the country;
- To examine the challenges to the fight against corruption in Nigeria and
1.4 Justification for the Study
The justification for the Research work stems from the debilitating impact of corruption on Nigeria. Without a doubt, corruption has been debilitating to Nigeria on many fronts. Despite the vast resources which abound in Nigeria and the country being touted as the largest economy in Africa with a GDP of 481.07 billion USD as of 2015 and the sixth largest exporter of Crude Oil in the world earning 57 billion USD annually in oil revenues, prosperity has eluded the country. In 2013, the UNDP reported that 68 percent of Nigerians were living below 1.25 USD daily and that Nigeria was not among the countries making remarkable progress in its Human
Development Index as it ranked 153 out of 186 countries assessed. As of 2015, 64.7 percent of Nigerians were living below poverty line and in Legatum Institute 2016 Global Prosperity Index, the country ranked 125 out of 142 countries assessed on prosperity and did not feature among the top 20 ranked in Africa . Furthermore, as a result of corruption, infrastructure in Nigeria has degenerated with many in a state of decay. Nigerian roads have become death traps with many lives lost due to avoidable accidents. The Nation‟s healthcare delivery system is in shambles due to inadequate facilities in the hospitals. Nigeria today ranks amongst the countries with very high maternal and infant mortality rates. Many jobs have been lost in Nigeria as a result of the down turn in the economy which is occasioned by widespread corruption in the system. The nation‟s graduates continue to roam the streets in search of jobs that are non-existent. The National
Bureau of Statistics reported that 42.24 percent of Youths in Nigeria were unemployed as at the First Quarter of 2016 . Driven by frustration, many of these jobless youths resort to violent crime to make a living for themselves. This explains the ever increasing state of insecurity in the country which is now gradually degenerating to the level of terrorism. Many Nigerians today cannot sleep with both eyes closed because of the state of insecurity in the country. It is estimated that the Boko Haram insurgency in the North East of Nigeria has resulted in the death of about 15,000 Nigerians
1.5 Scope of the Study
The scope of this Research work deals essentially with critical analysis of some extant laws enacted in Nigeria to combat corruption in the country such as the Criminal Code61 the
Penal Code , EFCC (Establishment) Act 2004 , Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act 2000 , Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act, 2011(as amended) , Advance Fee Fraud and other Related Offences Act 2006 and the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act. The provisions of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended) relative to the issue of corruption were also examined.
1.6 Research Methodology
The Research Methodology employed in this work is essentially doctrinal. Reliance was placed on primary and secondary materials. The primary materials consulted for this work are Statutes relevant to the issue of corruption in Nigeria. These Statutes include Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act 2000, the EFCC (Establishment) Act 2004, Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Money Laundering (Prohibition) Act 2011 (as amended), Advance Fee Fraud and Other Related Offences Act 2006, the Criminal Code, and the Penal Code.
Other primary materials consulted are case law decided by Nigerian Courts and Courts from other jurisdictions. The secondary materials for this Research work derives from well researched text books on the subject matter, articles from journals, newspaper and magazine reports, papers presented at seminars and workshops, and sources from the internet and relevant organizations relative to the subject matter.
Whilst as stated earlier, the Research methodology employed in this work essentially was doctrinal, teleological and empirical approaches derived from the experience of the Researcher and interactions with individuals and organizations on the subject matter was also adopted to complement the doctrinal method of Research stated above.
1.7 Literature Review
The problem of corruption has been an issue in Nigeria for many years and there are a number of literatures on this topic in the country. It is important however to state that in the course of this research work, an attempt to review existing literature reveals that contributions on the topic do not adequately identified the weaknesses in the available legal and institutional frameworks for combating corruption in the country and they also fall short in proffering suggestions and recommendations that are effective enough to resolve the problem of corruption in Nigeria. Many writers on the topic of corruption submit that a conceptual understanding of the term “corruption” is a challenge to the fight against corruption in Nigeria. According to Lawal and Onakoya, the word “corruption” is not amenable to an easy definition . To Ikpeze, it is not an easy task to define or attempt a precise and universally accepted definition of the term “corruption” . This has made many writers on the topic to view the concept of corruption from a narrow perspective.
In reviewing existing works, and even the extant laws on corruption, it was discovered that most of the works and even the extant laws on corruption have the problem of limiting their understanding of the concept of corruption to the one adopted by the World Bank which perceives corruption from the point of view of abuse of Public Office rather than from the entire human activities in the society.
For example Ogundiya conceptualized corruption as the misuse of public position for private, group or sectional gain. This conception is similar to the definition of corruption by the World Bank. The World Bank defines corruption as “the abuse of public office for private gains…” This definition is limited in scope as it restricts corruption to only those who occupy public positions. This to a large extent is how the ordinary Nigerian on the street views corruption. This explains why on matters of corruption, it is often Public Officers that are mostly vilified and hated in Nigeria. Corruption is a typology of crime and there are many aspects of corruption which do not necessarily have to do with any public position such cases include theft, cheating or obtaining by false pretences, criminal misappropriation, criminal breach of trust and so forth.
Ojowu did not define the concept corruption but he defined Administrative corruption to mean the abuse or strange implementation of laid down rules and regulations in the administration of public sector usually for personal gain . Again the foregoing is a restrictive definition of the concept of corruption. Abuse of procedure does not necessarily have to be motivated by personal gain for it to amount to corruption. If the abuse of procedure was aimed at the gain of some other person and not the personal gain of the perpetrator of the abuse, it would still amount to corruption. Adeyemi agrees that nepotism is a variant of corruption which is not captured in the widely accepted definition of the term corruption as represented by the World Bank definition. He however opined that a more realistic assessment of the situation of corruption would demand that efforts should be concentrated in dealing with cases involving exchange/passage of benefits/gratification as according to him, these may be much more practicable to identify, confronted and contained. He thus considered the problem of corruption in Nigeria from a very narrow perspective.
Alemika examined different definitions of corruption proffered by various writers. He identified bribery, kickback and nepotism as the common manifestations of corruption in Nigeria76. This being so, Alemika inadvertently aligns himself with the general conception of corruption as being abuse of public office for private gain. This explains why he argued from the socialist point of view and agreed with many socialist writers that the cause of corruption in Nigeria has much to do with government policies of privatization, deregulation, commercialization and market forces. In as much as it is true that the government policies highlighted above contribute to corruption in Nigeria, a clear understanding of the dimensions of corruption in Nigeria would show that government policies stated above is just but one dimension to the problem of corruption in Nigeria. To effectively tackle the problem of corruption in Nigeria, the various dimensions of corruption must be examined and treated.
Obadan adopted the general conception of corruption as abuse of public office for private gain or for unofficial ends. He categorized corruption into petty or grand depending on their magnitude . However in analyzing these categories of corruption, he limited same to the involvement of officials of government, Public Institutions and Multinational or Transnational Corporations. He also identified factors that accentuate corruption which are basically economic in substance and results from weakness in governance . The distinguished writer failed to identify the weak values in the society as playing a big role in promoting corruption. Thus the recommendation which he proffered is reform of institutions, economic policies and incentives . Joda initially appeared to have broadened the concept of corruption as it affects Nigeria when he stated: “Corruption is not about stealing or extorting money and property by leaders as commonly known. It includes any form of behavior that deviates from ethics, morality, tradition, law and civic virtues by any individual or group no matter their status in the society….”
However, he did a turnaround when he accepted without reservations the (United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) definition of corruption as “the misuse of public power,
office or authority for private benefit through bribery, extortion, influence peddling, nepotism, fraud, speed money or embezzlement”. He described this definition as very holistic. As a result, the writer went ahead to identify three levels of corruption to wit (i) Petty Corruption (ii) Political or Grand Corruption (iii) State Corruption all of which according to him, are perpetrated by Public Servants, Politicians and powerful people. The question thus arises that if corruption as conceived by the writer is limited to the three levels identified by him, in what category would the everyday corrupt behavior of the ordinary Nigerian on the street (who is neither a public servant nor powerful) fall?
Owasanoye also posits that corruption is a governance issue and that grand public sector corruption is the most lethal with debilitating effect apt to rapidly multiply poverty as opposed to petty corruption of lower cadre officers . It is submitted that rather than being solely a governance issue, corruption is fundamentally an attitudinal issue which cuts across every strata of the Nigerian society. The attempt to classify corruption as either grand or petty beclouds the issue. Corruption, whether so called grand or petty is lethal to every society. If the fight against corruption must be successful in Nigeria, the classification identified by the writer above must be jettisoned.
Furthermore, even though Owasanoye identified the need for an appropriate definition of corruption to be adopted to capture all possible variations and exceptions thereto that are recognized in different countries, he offered no such appropriate definition. Alobo while discussing the causes of corruption in Nigeria, identified amongst others such factors as:
- Undue societal and family pressure,
- Unemployment/Job insecurity
- Lack of clear developmental projects; and
- Leadership crises.
The writer stated that successive Nigerian leaders have become predators who prey on Nigeria‟s resources and use their positions to accumulate wealth for themselves at the expense of the poor masses. The writer took time out to heap the blame of corruption in Nigeria on the
Nation‟s leadership. He wrote:
Imagine corruption is now a serious Nigerian phenomenon and it has critically hobbled and skewed Nigeria‟s development. Where does this come from? Don‟t bother your mind, the whole sorry development, emanates all the way from ASO ROCK – the seat of power.
Government at the central level is the vessel that is leaking from the top and ASO ROCK and other government parastatals and departments are the main fountain where corruption takes its source.
Alobo appears to have allies in Akpotor and Omorogbe. Akpotor writing on the topic “Corruption: The Civil Society and Government” attempted to unveil the theoretical
underpinnings of corruption on a developing society like Nigeria. He contends that the inability of the civil society to discourage corruption is informed by the thesis that the State usually does not bear the interest of the people at heart or is incompetent or corrupt or all three. The writer further stated that the state has been unable and unwilling to fight corrupt practices because it is well entrenched in it and survives on it. He wrote: “Infact, the Nigerian leadership from the beginning has been found to be the worst culprit and to that extent, the vernal of the problem”. The writer drew attention to examples of some Public Officers with “larger than life” pattern who have been indicted by various probe panels for pilfering public funds to buttress his point.
On his part, Omorogbe writing on the topic “Intellectual Giants but Moral Dwarfs: An Examination of the Role of Morality in Education” , discussed the role of morality in education and good governance. He holds the view that the low level of prosperity in Nigeria reflects the low level of morality in the country especially among the leaders. He further wrote that:
Nigerians have had the misfortune of being ruled by a succession of such gangs of criminals for decades since independence. That is why we have made no meaningful progress in development; instead we have been subjected to untold hardship that deteriorates with the passage of time, hardship in the midst of plenty.
Okonkwo while writing on the topic “Legal and Institutional Mechanisms Against Corruption in Nigeria” identified reasons why corruption is intractable in Nigeria. He stated that the reason why no serious effort had been made in the past to fight corruption even as its incidents soared is because some Heads of State were implicated in it and therefore had their hands tied. He went on to preposterously express optimism with the then leadership in the country under Olusegun Obasanjo. He stated: “Today we have a Head of State who is
determined to fight corruption in our society and who has taken serious and commendable steps in that direction”.
It is quite true that at the beginning of the Obasanjo administration in 1999, he identified corruption as a major problem in Nigeria. To combat this problem, the administration established the ICPC and the EFCC. At that time, the administration received wide commendation. However, sooner than later, the administration became deeply enmeshed in the murky waters of corruption. Not a few eyebrows were raised when it emerged that the administration frittered away 16 billion USD in the power sector without any tangible results. Many Ministers in that administration also involved themselves in corrupt practices . The take away from all the above is that in Nigeria, successive regimes always seek legitimacy and acceptance by pledging to fight corruption in the country, but in the end they also get entangled in the web of corruption. The question is: “Why is this so?” This makes a study on the psychology of corruption vital in the fight against corruption in Nigeria which none of the writers has ventured into to the best of the Researcher‟s knowledge.
 Omorogbe, J.I. (1991) Ethics for Every Nigerian, Joja Educational Research and Publishers Ltd, Lagos, p. vii
 Akande, I.F. et al (2013) The Fight Against Corruption in Nigeria: The Imperative of Criminal Justice System
Reforms. In: Abdulqadr, I.A. et al (eds.) Corruption and National Development , Proceedings of the 46th Annual
Conference of the Nigerian Association of Law Teachers held 22nd – 26th April, 2013 at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria, Nigerian Association of Law Teachers, Ilorin, p.31 3Ibid
 Omorogbe J.I. (2003) Intellectual Giants But Moral Dwarfs: An Examination of the Role of Morality in Education. In: Dukor, M. (ed.) Philosophy and Politics: Discourse on Values, Politics and Power in Africa, Malthouse Press Limited Lagos, p. 380
 NEITI Audit Uncovers N2.23 Trillion Lost, Unremitted Revenues by NNPC in 2013, Retrieved from www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/203908–neiti–audit–uncovers–n2–23trillion–lost–unremitted–revenues–bynnpc–in–2013.html Retrieved on 25 July, 2016 at 11.50pm
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 Igwenyi, B.O. (2001) Anti Corruption Act – Obasanjo Legacy. Willy Rose and Apple Seed Publishing Co.
Abakiliki, p. 11
 Obasanjo, O. (2004) Nigeria: From Pond of Corruption to Island of Integrity. In: Bagudu, N. (ed.) op.cit, p. 198
 Zimako, Z.O. (2009) Face of a Nation: Democracy in Nigeria: Foreign Relation and National Image, Modern Approach Publishers, Nigeria, p. 59
 Quoted in Ibid, pp. 56 and 239
 Dare, O. Donald Trump‟s Delusional World (2016, January 26) The Nation Newspaper, p. 48.
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 Modern Corruption in Nigeria Judiciary – The Case of Justice Ayo Salami and Justice Katsina-Alu. Retrieved from www.antigraft.org/cc–case/modern–corruption–nigeria–judiciary–case–justice–ayo—salami–and–katsina–alu. Visited on 18 June, 2016 at 5.05pm
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 Usman, Y.B. Op.cit, pp. 43-46
 Ibid, p. 45
 Known as the Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Act 2000
 Vide the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (Establishment) Act No. 51 2002 which was later repealed and replaced by the EFCC (Establishment) Act No. 1 of 2004.
 Horatius, E. et al, EFCC Arrests Balogun. (2005, March 30) The Punch Newspaper, p. 1
 Our Correspondent, Osuji, Others Face Trial. (2005, March 21)The Punch Newspaper, p.1 44 (2005, March 18) The Punch Newspaper, p.1
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 –million–nigerians–living–below–poverty–line–osinbajo/ Visited on 12 July, 2016 at 9.03pm 56 Carrington, W. (2013) On the Dawn of Nigeria‟s Second Century: Challenge to a New Generation. A Convocation Lecture delivered at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria on October 26, 2013 at p.5. Retrieved from www.vanguardngr.com/2013/10/nigeria–underperformer–dangerous–mix–corruption–poverty–walter–carrington/ visited on 15 November, 2013 at 2.15pm 57 Ibid
 NBS: Another 1.5m Nigerians Became Unemployed in 2016. Retrieved from https://www.thecable.ng/nbsanother–1–5m–nigerians–became–unemployed–2016.Visited on 12 July, 2016 at 11.56pm 61 Cap 38 LFN 2004
 Cap 89 Laws of Northern Nigeria 1963 Vol. III
 Act No. 1 of 2004, Cap E1 LFN, 2004
 Cap C20 LFN 2004
 Government Notice No. 103, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette No. 20, (Vol. 98) now amended by the
Money Laundering (Prohibition) (Amendment) Act No. 1 of 2012
 Act No. 14 of 2006
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Mechanism. In: Abdulkadir, I.A. et al(eds.)Corruption and National Development: Proceedings of the 46th Annual
Conference of the Nigerian Association of Law Teachers. Nigerian Association of Law Teachers, Nigeria, p.507
 Ikpeze, N. (2013) Fusion of Anti-Corruption Agencies in Nigeria: A Critical Appraisal. In: Abdulqadir, I.A. et al (eds.) Ibid, p.2
 Ogundiya, I.S, (2009) Anti-Corruption Reforms in Nigeria: The Challenges and Failures. In Ogundiya I.S. et al
(eds) A Decade of Re-Democratization in Nigeria 1999 – 2009. Department of Political Sciences, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto 2009. p. 150
 Quoted in Ayua, I.A. (2002) Overview of Corruption in Nigeria. In Ayua, I.A. and Owasanoye, B (eds) Problems of Corruption in Nigeria, Nigerian Institute of Advanced Legal Studies Press, Abuja 2002. p.4
 Ojowu, O. (2002) Administrative and Official Corruption in the Public Sector. In Ayua I.A. and Owasanoye B. (eds.) Ibid, p. 55
 Ibid, p.59
 Adeyemi, A..A. (2002) Corruption in the Administration of Justice in Nigeria. In Ayua, I.A. and Owasanoye, B.
(eds.) Op.cit, p. 75.
 Alemika, E.E.O. Corruption and the Civil Society. In: Ayua, I.A. and Owasanoye, B. (eds) Op.cit, p. 129 76Ibid, pp. 131-132
 Obadan, M.I.,(2002) Corruption and the Destabilization of Development and Transnational Economies. In Ayua, I.A. and Owasanoye, B. (eds.) Op. cit., p. 186
 Ibid, p.188
 Ibid, pp. 191 and 193
 Ibid, p. 207
 Joda, T.H. (2010) Anti Corruption Hand Book for Nigerian Youths , Joyce Graphic Printers and Publishers, Kaduna, p. 13
 Ibid, pp. 14 – 15
 Owasanoye , B. (2002) Corruption in the Negotiation and Utilization of External Loans. In Ayua, I.A. and Owasanoye, B. (eds.) op.cit, p. 210
 Alobo, J. E. (2006) Corruption in the Rock, Josim Publishing House, Abuja, 2006, pp 22-60.
 Ibid, p. 27
 Akpotor, S. (2003) Corruption: The Civil Society and Government. In: Duko, M. (ed.) Philosophy and Politics: Discourse on Values, Politics and Power in Africa. Malthouse Press Limited Lagos, p. 355
 Omorogbe, O. (2003) Intellectual Giants But Moral Dwarfs: An Examination of the Role of Morality in Education.
In Duko, M. (ed.) Ibid, p. 379
 Okonkwo, C.O. (2002) Legal and Institutional Mechanisms Against Corruption in Nigeria. In Ayua, I.,A. and Owasanoye, B. (eds.) Op. cit., p. 268
 Ibid, p. 269
 N55m Budget Scandal: S-Court Okays Wabara, Osuji, Others for Trial. Retrieved from
EXAMINE THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF THE CRIME OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA