ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

This research work assessed the social studies curriculum implementation in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, Nigeria. The study was conducted using five objectives which were translated in to research questions and hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted with 5660 population using the sample size of 200, respondents were randomly selected across the 10 junior secondary schools out of 18 junior secondary schools in Nguru Inspectorate Educational Zone. The instruments used for data collection were questionnaire titled Assessment of Social Studies Curriculum Implementation Questionnaire (ASSCIQ) and interview. Mean, standard deviation and bar chart were used for descriptive analysis and chi-squire was used for inferential analysis. The research findings from this analysis reveals that: there is no significant difference in the extent to which social studies curriculum content is being implemented in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State and the respondents‘ view shows that, social studies curriculum content is not being properly implemented in junior secondary schools in Yobe State, there is no significant difference in the pedagogical methods used by social studies teachers in implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, and most of the social studies teachers are using conventional method of teaching, there is no significant difference in the teachers‘ used of instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State, and in most of the schools lacked instructional materials, there is no significant difference in the problems identified with the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State. This revealed the existence of problems which include; inadequate instructional materials, lack of teacher motivation, inadequate classrooms for social studies lessons, lack of student‘s interest in social studies lesson and negative attitude by community members towards social studies education and there is no significant difference in the supervisory roles of quality assurance officers in social studies curriculum implementation in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State. Based on these findings five recommendations were proffered which include; all people concerned with the implementation of social studies curriculum content should be actively involved and committed to ensure the effective implementation of social studies curriculum in Nigeria, social studies teachers need to be conversant with the appropriate and newly discovered teaching methods and strategies and as well employ them while teaching social studies, social studies instructional materials and resources should be made available to the schools, there is need to consider teacher motivation, and provide adequate classrooms for social studies lessons and Quality assurance officials should put more effort and perform their duties accordingly.

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

 

            Background to the Study

 

Social Studies was introduced into the official school curriculum following its success in solving societal problems not only in Britain but also in America as well as Nigeria in the late 1960s. This programme of study was first introduced in Britain after the 1st and 2nd world wars in order to appease the conscience of the citizens to respect constituted authority, submissive to their parents, show regards to the elders of the society, help to protect public property, value the lives of fellow citizens and contribute positively towards the development of the society. (Edinyang, Mezieobi and Ubi 2013).

The national curriculum conference held in 1969 at Lagos was a major turning point in the history of curriculum development in Nigeria and a historical landmark in the history of education in Africa. Fafunwa, (2004:239), observes that it was the first national attempt to change the colonial orientation of the Nigerian educational system and promote national consciousness and self- reliance through the educational process.

The recommendation of the national conference according to Fafunwa, emphasizes national unity, citizenship education, national consciousness, nationalism and national reconstruction. These recommendations became the bedrock on which the Nigerian Educational goals were realized. The National Policy on Education (FRN 2009), spelt out the goals of Nigerian education which include; the inculcation of national consciousness and national unity; the inculcation of the right types of values and attitudes for the survival of individuals and the Nigerian society; the training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and the acquisition of appropriate skills and the

 

development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as required for the individuals to live in, and contribute to the development of the society.

The desire to achieve the aforementioned goals prompted the introduction of more subjects into the primary and secondary schools among which is Social Studies Education which is the focus of this study. Thus, For the philosophy to be in harmony with Nigeria‘s national objectives, Social Studies education is geared towards self-realization, better human relationship, national consciousness and national unity as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress. These are the main targets of Social Studies Education. Ogundare (1984:82), says Social Studies programme should aim at achieving the diverse and ever changing physical and social environment as a whole including its natural resources, together with the rational use and conservation of these resources for development; developing in the learners, the capacity to learn and acquire skills including not only the basic skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing but also of developing the skills of hand together with those of analysis and inference which are important in the formation of sound judgment; developing in children, positive and desirable values of citizenship and the desires in them to make positive contribution to the creation of a united Nigeria; and inculcating in the learners sympathetic views which will enable them to appreciate the diversity and interdependence of all members of the local community and of the wider national and international community.

The researcher intends to assess the social studies curriculum implementation in junior secondary schools in Yobe state. Though, Okam (1998), stresses that upon all the subjects studied in the Nigerian school system, Social Studies is the most (if not the only)

 

appropriate for addressing Nigerian societal problems educationally and comprehensively. Curriculum implementation is aimed at actualizing the planned curriculum. It is the translation of the curriculum contents into practice or action. In the words of Offorma (1994), Nzewi, Okpara and Akudolu (1995), implementation of curriculum is normally done in the classroom through joint efforts of the teacher and learners and those concerned. In curriculum implementation, the Teacher is expected to adopts appropriate teaching methods and instructional materials to guide the students learning. Students are expected to be actively involved in the process of interacting with the learning materials and activities.

Assessment of the implementation of the Social Studies curriculum on the other hand is expected to help to reposition social studies teaching and learning process and make it more relevant to the needs of the learners and the society at large. Thus, assessment is defined as assigning marks, selecting individuals for special opportunities or the quality of instructional materials, assessing the effectiveness of various approaches to instruction and many other kinds of activities (Herzberg, 1975). Ololobou (2007), defines evaluation as the collection and use of information as a basis for rational decision-making on the curriculum. This decision therefore will help to improve on the implementation process which will lead to the attainment of the set objectives. Equally, Yusuf (2012), defines curriculum evaluation as the systematic process of identifying, assembling or gathering data and making value judgment about such data to determine the merit, worth and significance of a curriculum. It is a process of determining whether the implementation of the programme needs to be improved, modified or attracts innovation so as to actualize the set objectives. It is a quality control exercise to ensure

 

that resources are used maximally. In line with the above, a conclusion could be made to say that, this research work will assist in shaping the Nigerian citizens through social studies education in order to benefit themselves and immensely contribute their quarter towards the development of their community, Nigeria and the world at large. Okam (1998), posited that, there is an indication that social studies education has not been properly implemented in the schools to equip students with the necessary knowledge, facts and ideas that can enhance positive values and attitudes for the survival of individuals and the society. That is why social problems range from disrespect to elders and constituted authorities, chronic dishonesty, corruption, religious crisis, ethnic/tribal crisis, murder, arson, examination malpractices, drug abuse, cultism, indiscipline and other forms of mal-adaptive behaviors bedeviled the Nigerian society. This is what motivated the researcher to embarked on this research.

            Statement of the Problem

 

Social Studies Curriculum as a policy document and academic programme was introduced to educational system in Nigeria with the aim of inculcating positive values and building of better Nigeria. This could be possible only when there is effective implementation of social studies curriculum at all levels of education. According to Okam (1998), there is an indication that social studies education has not been properly implemented in the schools to equip students with the necessary knowledge, facts and ideas that can enhance positive values and attitudes for the survival of individuals and the society. That is why social problems range from disrespect to elders and constituted authorities, chronic dishonesty, corruption, religious crisis, ethnic/tribal crisis, murder, arson, examination malpractices, drug abuse, cultism, indiscipline and other forms of

 

mal-adaptive behaviors which has bedeviled the Nigerian society. However, these problems are seriously affecting the implementation of social studies curriculum negatively, since the actors engage themselves with negative attitudes, thereby making the implementation of social studies curriculum difficult. Thus, positive values and attitudes must be the habit of the social studies curriculum implementation actors for the success of the programme.

In view of the above, this research intends to assess the extent to which social studies curriculum is being implemented in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State. The study also aims at identifying the problems associated with the implementation of the social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Yobe State.

            Objectives of the Study

 

The objectives of the study are to:

 

  1. determine the extent to which social studies curriculum content is being implemented in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  2. ascertain the pedagogical methods used by social studies teachers in the implementation of the social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  3. assess the roles of social studies teachers in the used of instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  4. identify the problems associated with the implementation of the social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State; and

 

  1. determine the supervisory roles of quality assurance officers in social studies curriculum implementation in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe

            Research Questions

 

The following are the guided research questions:

 

  1. to what extent does the social studies curriculum content is being implemented in Junior Secondary schools in Yobe State?
  2. how does the pedagogical methods used by teachers in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary schools in Yobe State?
  3. in what ways does the social studies teachers used instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary schools in Yobe State?
  4. what are the problems associated with the implementation of the social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State?
  5. how do the quality assurance officers supervise the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary schools in Yobe State?

            Hypotheses

 

The following hypotheses are put forward to guide the study:

 

  1. there is no significant difference in the extent to which social studies curriculum content is being implemented in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  2. there is no significant difference in the pedagogical method used by social studies teachers in implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;

 

  1. there is no significant difference in the teachers‘ use of instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State;
  2. there is no significant difference in the problems identified with the implementation of social studies curriculum in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe State; and
  3. there is no significant difference in the supervisory roles of quality assurance officers in social studies curriculum implementation in Junior Secondary Schools in Yobe

            Basic Assumptions

 

The study is based on the following assumptions:

 

  1. that social studies curriculum for Junior Secondary Schools was planned, designed, and
  2. that it is distributed to Junior Secondary Schools in Nigeria by Nigerian government through National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC).
  3. that the curriculum planning, development and distribution was made to assist in ensuring the effective implementation of social studies in order to have productive citizens through self-identification and self
  4. that proper and effective implementation of social studies curriculum is leading to the societal development and provides means for solving problems in Nigeria and the world in

 

            Significance of the Study

 

The study will greatly benefit the curriculum planners and developers through finding the extent to which the social studies curriculum content is being implemented at Junior Secondary School levels and finally used as a guide for decision making on whether there is need to change, alter or innovate or improve upon the existing social studies curriculum content.

The study will be of great importance to the social studies teachers of Junior Secondary Schools who are the key implementers of the curriculum by realizing their roles in ensuring the effective implementation of social studies curriculum. It will also provide empirical information on the pedagogical methods used by teachers that are relevant to the teaching and learning of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools.

Quality assurance officials which involve both internal and external (supervisors) will benefit greatly from this research work. The quality control officials who are responsible for ensuring the effective implementation of curriculum including that of social studies will benefit from the data collected from the research. The findings of this work will therefore help them to improve on their assignment.

This research will also be beneficial to parents who are stake holders and joint partners responsible for ensuring the effective implementation of the social studies curriculum. The need for parents to join their hands in ensuring the implementation of curriculum was clearly pointed out in the words of Offorma (1994), Nzewi, Okpara and Akudolu (1995), where they opined that implementation of curriculum is normally done in the classroom through the joint efforts of the teacher and the learners and those concerned. In this regard, those concerned is referred to as parents, school administrators,

 

inspectors, supervisors and government itself etc. Thus, parents as a people that are highly concerned in ensuring the curriculum implementation will surely benefit from the findings of this research.

            Scope of the Study

 

The scope of this research was limited to the assessment of social studies curriculum implementation in Junior Secondary Schools in Nguru Universal Basic Education Inspectorate Zone, Yobe State. This zone consists of Nguru, Machina and Karasuwa local government areas in which all the three local governments will be found in the North Senatorial Zone of Yobe State. This limitation is done considering the number of local governments and large number of Junior Secondary Schools available around the state. The research was carried out in Nguru Universal Basic Education Inspectorate Zone which consist of Nguru, Machina and Karasuwa local governments as already explained earlier and the population of this research work covers the students, social studies teachers, principals and quality assurance officials from the educational zone concerned. The research is concerned with the extent to which social studies curriculum is being implemented, the pedagogical methods used by teachers in social studies curriculum implementation, roles of social studies teachers in the used of instructional materials in the implementation of social studies curriculum, identifying the problems associated with the implementation of the social studies curriculum and the supervisory roles of quality assurance officials in ensuring social studies curriculum implementation..

 

ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN YOBE STATE, NIGERIA

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