IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
The study examined the impact of social network on students’ academic achievement in social studies in secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area. The research objectives are to ascertain the influence of social networking sites in teaching and learning of social studies, to determine the motive of using social networking sites by students of Social Studies and to determine the relationship between using social networking sites and students’ academic achievements. Three research questions were formulated in line with the research purposes. The descriptive survey design was adopted. The population of study consisted of the 220 teachers of the 12 government secondary schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area. A of 160 teachers were selected using the simple random sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was the questionnaire. The instrument for data analysis was the mean and standard deviation. The findings of the study shows that Social networking sites influence the teaching and learning of social studies, social networking increase increases interaction among students and that Social networking sites has negative influence on students’ academic achievement in social studies. From the findings, it was recommended that teachers should be aware and orient the students on how to use Social Media moderately. Monitor school work diligently and encourage students to indulge to a more fulfilling and productive activities, Interactive social networks should be developed by Health Training Institutions (HTIs) and Ministry of Health (MoH) for teaching and learning. The parents in general should be aware that students need parental guidance while using the Social Media.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contentsvi
List of Tables viii
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
1.3 Purpose of the Study 8
1.4 Significance of the Study 9
1.5 Scope of the Study 9
1.6 Research Questions9
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 11
2.1 .Conceptual Framework 11
2.2 Theoretical Framework 26
2..3 Epirircal Reviewed Literature 28
2.4 Smmuary of Literature Reviewed 32
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 33
3.1 Research Design 33
3.2 Area of the Study 33
3.3 Population of the Study 34
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 34
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 34
3.6 Validation of the Instrument 34
3.7 Reliaility of the Instrument 35
3.8 Method of Data Collection 35
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 36
CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS 37
4.1 Summary of findings 40
DISCUSSION, RESULTS, SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 41
5.1 Discussion of Findings 41
5.2 Implication of the Study 44
5.2 Summary 45
5.3 Conclusion 46
5.4 Recommendations 46
5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies 47
LIST OF TABLES
Table.1: How does a Social networking site influence the teaching and learning of social studies? 37
1.1 Background to the Study
Adaralegbe (2005) sees social studies as a study of man in his environment and the effects of science and technology among others. Esu and Inyang (2014) describes social studies as an integrated study of and the outcome of his interaction with the environment. The researcher on his own viewpoint sees social studies as the study of man and his environment. Social Studies can be seen as a study of how man influence and is in turn influenced by his physical, Social, scientific and technological environment.
Social network has exploded as a category of online discourse where people create content, share it, bookmark it and network at a prodigious rate. Because of its ease of use, speed and reach, social network is fast changing the public discourse in society and setting trends and agenda in topics that range from the environment and politics to technology and the entertainment industry.
In the last ten years, the online world has changed dramatically, thanks to the invention of social media, young men and women now exchange ideas, feelings, personal information, pictures and videos at a truly astonishing rate. According to Oberst (2010) Seventy-three percent of wired American teens now use social media websites. Martins (2008) and Lusk (2010) share the same concept of social media. To them social media is the use of Facebook, Blogs, Twitter, My Space and LinkedIn for the purpose of communication, sharing photos as well as videos.
However for the purpose of this study, social network, used interchangeably with social media is captured within the use of internet through Facebook, Whatsapp, Twitter, Skype, MySpace as well as Yahoo Messenger for communication sharing of ideas, sharing of photos and videos by users. The increased use of Social Networking Websites has become an international phenomenon in the past several years. What started out as a hobby for some computer literate people has become a social norm and way of life for people from all over the world. According to Boyd (2007) Teenagers and young adults have especially embraced these sites as a way to connect with their peers, share information, reinvent their personalities, and showcase their social lives.
Most of the members to these social networking sites are young people who are still in school. Al-Rahma and Othman (2013) asserts that there is no doubt that social media has gained wider acceptability and usability and is also becoming the most important communication tools among students. A large percentage of teenagers in Nigeria spend their time online either using smart phones or their computers and other handheld gadgets such as ipads and tablets browsing these social networking sites. Students in all levels of education seize every opportunity they get to access social networking sites to check on status on Facebook and what is trending on Twitter. Teenagers have learnt to multitask as they switch from one Social networking site to another.
The world is today celebrating the improvements in communication technology which has broadened the scope of communication through Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Ufuophu and Ayobami (2012) observe that the ICTs include internet, satellite, cable data transmission and computer assisted equipment. Social network is a social structure made up of individuals or organizations called “nodes”, which are tied (connected) by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest, financial exchange, dislike, sexual relationships or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.
Boyd and Ellison (2007) views Social network sites as the web-based services that allow individuals to construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system. Social network can also be referred to as a map of specified ties, such as friendship, between the nodes being studied. The nodes, to which an individual is thus connected, are the social contacts of that individual; the network can also be used to measure social capital – the value that an individual gets from the social network.
Social networking sites include: Yahoo Messenger, Facebook Messenger, Blackberry Messenger (BBM), Google talk, Google +Messenger, iPhone, Androids and so on. These networking sites are used by most people to interact with old and new friends, physical or internet friends. Martins (2008) suggest that social media refer to Facebook, YouTube, Blogs, Twitter, MySpace or LinkedIn. He maintains that among these, Facebook is the most used social network by college students, followed by YouTube and Twitter.
Stollak, Vandenberg, Burklund, and Weiss (2011) notes that Social networking among secondary school students has become more and more popular, over the years, because it is a way to make connections between friends within and outside the school. Due to this popularity, people begin to ask questions whether the performance of students are being affected by how much time students spent on various sites of social networking. Social networking became popular from the year 2005, after Facebook and other social networking sites were created. The most successful and largest social networking site is the Facebook which comprises more than 500 million active members in July, 2010. Its members are multiplying greatly with each day passing.
The expansion in technology has also affected internet software, thus leading to chatting sites known by the name “social media”. With social networking sites, one can send and receive messages almost immediately. However, lack of regulation of the internet has led to its excessive use. McQuail (2008) avers that the internet penetrates more homes. It is a common sight to see a youth chatting in sensitive and highly organized places like church, mosque and lecture venues. Some are so carried away that even as they are walking along the high way, they keep chatting.
The manufacturing and distribution of equally sophisticated cellular phones has complicated the situation, as youths no longer need to visit a cybercafé before they send and receive messages. Attention has been shifted from visible to invisible friends, while important ventures like study and writing are affected in the process. This phenomenon has become a source of worry to many who believe in knowledge and skill acquisition.
Social studies is the study of people in relation to each other and to their world. It is an issues focused and inquiry-based interdisciplinary subject that draws upon history, geography, ecology, economics, law, philosophy, political science and other social science disciplines. Social studies fosters students’ understanding of and involvement in practical and ethical issues that face their communities and humankind. Social studies is integral to the process of enabling students to develop an understanding of who they are, what they want to become and the society in which they want to live.
Though social studies has to do with the relation between people and the society and social networking has to do with interaction among people, it remains to be seen if use of social networking in secondary schools significantly translate to good academic performance or not. The present study is therefore targeted to explore this relationship
Tuckman (1975) defined achievement as the apparent demonstration of understanding, concepts, skills, ideas and knowledge of a person and proposed that grades clearly depict the academic achievement of a student. Hence, their academic performance must be managed efficiently keeping in view all the factors that can positively or negatively affect their educational performance. Use of technology such as internet is one of the most important factors that can influence educational performance of students positively or adversely. Shah (2011) proposed that student users are affected by the internet and this impact is determined by the type of internet usage.
There are certain factors that influence the relationship between social media and academic performance such as how long students use social networking sites? What time of the day do they use these sites the most? A handful of studies have discussed the relationship between these variables internationally as well as in Nigeria.
A research done by Madge, Meek, Wellens and Hooley (2009) shows negative relationship between Facebook and the academic achievements of students. However, the study didn’t focus on which students were using Facebook and what time of the day they used it the most. Moreover, the sample used for the study was homogenous thereby restricting their research findings. Whereas according to Pasek, More and Hargittai (2009) the use of Facebook has a positive relationship with academic achievements. According to their research the students with higher grades tend to spend more of their time on Facebook. On the other hand, Paul, Baker and Cochran (2012) suggested that a negative relationship exists between time spent by students on social networking sites and their academic achievements.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The rapid advancement of media technology has had a great impact on the way people communicate on a daily basis. The growing dimension of the use of the social media among the youth of today cannot be over emphasized. Over the years, social networking among students has become more and more popular. It is a way to make connections, not only on campus but with friends outside of school. Social networking is a way that helps people feel they belong to a community. Due to the increased popularly of it, economists and professors are questioning whether grades of students will not be affected by how much time is spent on these sites.
Jacobsen and Forste, (2011), MehMood and Taswir, (2013), believe that the use of technology such as internet is one of the most important factors that can influence educational performance of students positively or adversely. Many parents and guardians are worried that students are spending too much time on Facebook and other social media sites and have not enough time to study. Though parents are worried about students’ constant use of the social media sites, many students continue to utilize these sites on a daily basis. It is against this background that this research is being conducted to ascertain the impact of social networking on students’ academic achievements in social studies.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine the impact of social networking on academic achievements of students in Social Studies in Secondary Schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
The Specific objectives of the study are:
- To ascertain the influence of social networking sites in teaching and learning of social studies.
- To determine the motive of using social networking sites by students of Social Studies.
- To determine the relationship between using social networking sites and students’ academic achievements.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to the school authorities, the parents and future writers.
The school authorities: the findings of the study will be of great benefit to secondary school authorities because it will enlighten them on the need to properly regulate the students’ use of internet gadgets and social networking sites.
The parents: the findings of the study will as well enlighten the parents to monitor their children and regulate their use of social networking sites at home.
The study when concluded will serve as a guide to researchers who may wish to conduct a study on this topic or similar topics.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study examines the impact of social networking on academic achievements of students in Social Studies in Secondary Schools in Afikpo North Local Government Area. The content scope is social networking and academic achievements. The geographical scope is Afikpo North Local Government Area.
1.6 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:
- How does a social networking site influence the teaching and learning of social studies?
- What are the motives of using social networking sites by students of social studies?
- What is the influence of using social networking sites on students’ academic achievement?
IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKING ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA