THE HEALTH IMPLICATION OF POOR FOOD INTAKE ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
This work focus on the health implication of poor food intake on preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, the main purpose of the study is to identify the food intake, to examine the effect of poor nutrition on a intellectual performance, to determine the influence of junk food on a child health. The significant or relevant of this study was also stated in this research chapter. Lastly the scope of the study was drowned and the term used were properly defined. The area of study is Afikpo North the population of the study is 3295 preschool, 120 children was randomly selected and open ended question and structure inventory was used to elicit information from the 120 mother on behalf of the children, frequency and percentage was applied for data analysis. The data analyzed reveal that most children, consume high energy dense food, and little vegetable and fruit. Based on the findings the researcher recommended that parent should give their children natural food such as fruit juice instead of processed drink and food.
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF TABLES viii
CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION 1
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Significant of the Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
Research Question 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Conceptual Framework 10
Children’s Food Intake 10
Influence of Poor Nutrition on Children’s Health 21
Influence of Poor Nutrition on Intellectual Performance 25
Influence of Junk Food on the Health of Pre School Children 28
Review of Related Studies 36
Summary Review Literature 39
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 41
Research Design 41
Area of the Study 42
Population of the Study 42
Sample and Sampling Techniques 42
Instrument for Data Collection 44
Validation of the Instrument 44
Method of Data Collection 45
Method of Data Analysis 45
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS 47
Major Findings 52
Discussion of the Findings 53
CHAPTER FIVE : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 58
Implication of the Study 61
Limitations of the Study 63
Suggestions for Further Studies 63
APPENDIX I 74
Background of the Study
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutrition support for the body. It is usually of plant and animal origin and contains essential nutrients such as vitamin, mineral, carbohydrates, protein, lipids and water (Houghton, 2013). Food are substance consisting of nourishing and nutritive components such as lipids, protein and carbohydrates, vitamin, minerals and water which sustain life, generates energy, provides growth, maintain and promote health (Collins, 2003). It is any nourishing substance eaten drunk or otherwise taken into the body to sustain life, provides energy, promote growth (Thesaurus, 2010).
Food intake is one of the requirements of any living organism to grow and sustain life. But the quality and quantity of nutrient necessary for normal growth and to keep an organism in good health during it’s life span vary with the age of the organism, sex, height, weight, degree of activity and rate of growth (National public health partnership, 2005).
Poor food refers to poor nutrition. It is food that fails to provide the body with correct amounts and types of nutrients for maximum health (Marcy, 2011). They are those food which are considered to be of poor nutritive quality such as junk food, high fatty and sugary food, food with little or no vitamin such as sweet food, cake, Cookies, Soda (Karratti, 2011). Poor food is also known as unhealthy diet which means the diet that contains too much saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium added sugar and processed ingredient or little nutrient (Janet, 2010). Poor foods are high in calories but low in nutritional content (Merriam, 2014).
Poor nutrition negatively impacts a child’s ability to develop properly and adopt normally to certain situations. Poor food intake is concerns with both under nutrition and over nutrition. Under nutrition involves inadequate levels of energy and nutrients in the diet. Undernutrition in children causes direct structural damage to the brain and impairs infant motor development and exploratory behaviour (Kvamme, 2011). Children who are undernourished are more likely to be stunted in adulthood, have lower education achievement and economic status and gives birth to smaller infant. Undernutrition is mainly a consequence of inadequate diet and frequent infection, leading to deficiencies in calories protein, vitamin and minerals (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2013). This can led to under weight. Underweight children are at increased risk of mortality from infectious illnesses such as diarrhea and pneumonia.
Poor food intake not only involve undernutrition, but it also involves overnutrition, where energy intake from diet exceeds energy expenditure which can led to overweight or obesity. This imbalance has been linked to lifestyle factors, such as increased consumption of foods with high level of sugar and saturated fats, as well as a reduction in physical activity (World health organization, 2002). Poor food intake includes consuming oily food, such as chip, fried item, burger bread and butter, Raw eggs, unwashed raw vegetable and fruits (Anjum, 2010).
Poor food intake may have an injurious impact on health causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy (Linus, 2011) kwashiorkor (Medilinplus medical Encyclopedia, 2011) health threatening conditions like obesity and metabolic syndrome and common chronic systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, (National Diabetes information clearing house, 2011) and osteoporosis in later stage (Dietary supplement fact sheet, 2011).Poor food intake result from poverty and a lack of education regarding healthy eating (Eliza, 2015).
Poor food intake entails eating inadequate diet. It has to do with high intake of high energy dense foods; which is highly processed and micro nutrient poor further diminishing their nutritional value. Energy dense foods tend to be high in fat (e.g. butter, burger, oil, fried foods, sugar and starch) (World Health Organization, 2002). Poor nutrition can led to a health problem known as malnutrition.
Malnutrition also entails a condition where diet does not contain the right balance of nutrient (Ananya, 2012). Malnutrition is a nutrient deficiency state of protein, energy or micronutrients (vitamins and minerals). It is the largest single contributor to disease in the largest world (Nice, 2006). Malnutrition is a deficiency disease caused by poor food intake. It occurs when the body does not get enough nutrient, it results from inadequate or unbalanced diet, problem with digestion and absorption and certain medical condition (Klein, 2011).Malnutrition can be as a result of poverty, lack of education, food distribution, food shortage, food price, climate change (USH choice, 2013).
Pre-school children are children between the age of 2-5 years. This stage can also be called early childhood. The brain at this stage develop faster than any other part of the body, at this stage the brain of a 5 years has attained 90 percent of its adults weight (Turner, 2004). Preschool children need proper nutritional attention because they are very active. At this stage children nutritional status is been affected (Davidson, 2006). According to children’s Defense fund (2008). children who do not have access to proper nutrition are much more likely to suffer from psychological disorders such as anxiety or learning disabilities. These children are also significantly more likely to require mental health counseling. The nutrition a child receives early in life has lasting impact on his development (Dokata, 2013). Poor food intake, especially if for a prolonged period makes us more prone to illness and injury, illness and injury can lead to a reduced appetites through a wide variety of mechanism (Stratton 2007). The nutrition a child received during the first few years of life can affect her health for years to come. Poor nutrition in the first few years is irreversible (Pitcher, 2006).
Afikpo North is located in the southern part of Ebonyi State; most children in Afikpo North suffer from malnutrition because of poor food intake. Most preschoolers in Afikpo consumes much junk food and little vegetable and this practice had caused many adverse health effect in the children body. This prompted researcher to investigate on this study, the health implication of poor food intake on preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government.
Malnutrition has become an epidemics that eat up the flesh of the population of the people of Afikpo North. This is as a result of poor food intake. Malnutrition is one of the health problem in Afikpo North local government area leading cause of child mortality and morbidity. This has led so many Afikpo children to their early grave.
Malnutrition is the main cause of overweight and underweight which is the main cause of some health diseases such as osteoporosis, brain misfunction, Anemia, beri beri, pellagra, teeth decay, psychological crippling, low academic performance etc. Most parent in Afikpo North give their children much processed food instead of natural vegetable and fruit and this practice had affected many preschoolers health in Afikpo North. Malnutrition exists in some form in almost every country, affecting many thousands of Afikpo children. Very poor diets, when combined with poor health and frequent infection affect the body’s ability to digest and absorb enough nutrients to meet up with nutritional needs. This can lead to serious physical and psychological problems such as poor intellectual ability, obesity, stunted growth etc. Most of the parents are illiterate and ignorant of the implication of poor nutrition on the health of their children.
The main purpose of the research work is the health implication of poor food intake on preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government. Specifically, the study sought
- To determine the child’s food intake in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- To determine the influence of poor nutrition on the child’s health in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- To access the influence of poor nutrition on a child intellectual performance in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
- To determine the influence of junk food on the child’s health in Afikpo North Local Government Area.
This study will be of great benefit to parent because it will enlighten them on the implication of poor feeding practice on the health of their children. The findings of this study will help them change from giving their children much processed food and drinks. It will help them to improve the nutritional status of their children in order to avoid diseases. It will help the parent to know the appropriate recommended nutrient for their children.
The society will equally benefit because it will create awareness on the dangers of poor nutrition and this will educate them on the importance of healthy food intake.
The young researchers will benefit because this study will serve as a guide for them when writing a project, they will equally make references to this study when need be.
The school will benefit because it will enable them to know the nutritional implication of some food and this will help them to make right choices of food for students in the boarden houses. Healthy food practice will help the school spend less money on health care. The government will equally benefit because they can innate their policy from the study.
- What are the child’s food intakes in Afikpo North Local Government Area?
- What are the influences of poor nutrition on the child’s health in Afikpo North Local Government Area?
- How does poor nutrition influence the child’s intellectual development in Afikpo North Local Government Area?
- How does junk food influence the health of preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government Area?
The study is restricted to the health implication of poor food intake on preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study will specifically look into the child’s food intake, the influence of poor nutrition on the child’s health, the influence of poor nutrition on the child’s intellectual performance and the impact of junk food on the child health. The study is delimited to preschool children in Afikpo North Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
THE HEALTH IMPLICATION OF POOR FOOD INTAKE ON PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN AFIKPO NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT