YOUTHS AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA DEMOCRACY
This research work captioned to explore the effort, role and contributions of youth in nigerian democracy, in Birnin Kebbi metropolis in 2015 general election. The research work examined the factors hindering youth participation in the last general elections where emphases was placed on lack of adequate knowledge and information on nigerian democracy, lack of adequate education, deprivation, unemployment and absence of free and fair election, which are in place to bring about electoral related vices. The research work assess the factors encouraging participation of youth in electoral process and offer solutions that could encourage youth participation in future coming elections.
KEYWORD: YOUTHS AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA DEMOCRACY
|TABLE OF CONTENTS|
|Table of Contents||vi|
- Background to the Study 1
- Statement of Research Problem 2
- Research Questions 4
- Objectives of the Study 4
- Significance of the Study 4
- Research Hypotheses 5
- Scope of Study 5
- Operationalization of Basic Concepts 6
- Research Methodology 6
- Chapterization 7
Literature Review 10
CHAPTER THREE: The Historical Background of Birnin Kebbi
- Introduction 16
- People 16
- Agriculture 17
- Crops 17
- Culture 17
- Structure and Composition of Gwandu Emirate
Traditional Institution 18
- General Political Culture of Birnin Kebbi 19
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
- Introduction 23
- Data Presentation and Analysis 23
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
- Summary of Findings 34
- Conclusion 35
- Recommendation 36
CHAPTER ONE GENERAL INTRODUCTION
- Background to the Study
The youth are acclaimed to be the future leaders, because of the crucial role they play in political and social development of any nation. They serve as the building block that links the past with the present. They also represent the future hope of every society. The survival of any political system depend on the role of youth in participatory democratic plat form which allowed all groups regardless of their position, to participate, articulate and negotiate the interest of national unity.1
A cardinal feature of democracy remains the active participation of people in governace.2The idea of youth participation in nigerian democracy has become a popular part of contemporary political talk in every part of the world. In democratic states youth are leaders of tomorrow. This is because their age category is accompanied with physical, emotional and cognitive development that provides them the opportunity to contribute their own quota toward the growth and development of the nations.3 youth can be identified in the society as transitional stage because of the overall development that take place within the fixed age category. The place and participation of youth in our political process cannot be undermined or over emphasized. For our democracy to be stable and functional youth must be part of the process. Youth have both right and responsibility to help to shape future that they would inherit and quality of life they would experienced.4
Youth participation as a substantial force for inducing planed change which has gained a universal recognition. Youth participation is an expression of an essential involvement of people in their nigerian democracy.5 The idea of youth has existed throughout modern civilization, rapid technological development which has resulted in series of lines capable of social reality and also youth participation help to the adoption of such realities.6 before then changed has occurred without plans or guidance but, today the trained is towards a planned. Change has enable youth in a large segment of societies to actively participate in planning and deliberates changes by creating political parties which affect their lives.7
- Statement of Research Problem
Electoral process are mechanism by which youth of any back ground can be activity involve or participate in task of shaping policy and deciding how society should be governed, especially in democratic setting. Youth participation as a phenomenon is very central as far as nigerian democracy is concerned.
Eventually, within the context of political economy youth are subjected to extreme subject poverty. This has resulted from economic crises as well as adoption of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) to imposed on powerless Nigeria states by institutions for global governance. It is against this background that power elites and other political class are opportune exploited the situation and recruited the aggrieved and poverty ridden youth as political brigandage in order to assist them in attaining and retaining political power. The youth are financed and equipped with dangerous weapons such as knife, sword, digger by political class in order to intermediate and assassinate their political opponents.
In addition, in adequate knowledge, or information on politics particularly, electoral process coupled with low level of deprivation among the youth. Lack of active engagement or participation of youth in our electoral process also affect the credibility of the entire electoral process.
Besides, the engagement of youth into electoral process is attributed to the moral laxity and decadence in our contemporary societies. Infact the recruitment of youth by political elites, as political thugs is related to lack of moral training from parent. This is due to the fact that the families that cannot afford to give sound moral to their youth. Low level of political education is also another problems, as a result of this, very few among them were highly educated and politically motivated. Youth are only responsible in expressing the civil obligation but, they are not fully take part. As-a-result people were not fully socialize and they don’t know their significance in electoral process in shaping, influencing public official and politics.
- Research Question
The study seeks to raise and answer the following questions:
- To what extent do youth participate in electoral process in Birnin Kebbi?
- What are the factors encourage youth participation in electoral process?
- What are the factors hindering youth participation in nigerian democracy?
- What are the solutions toward improving youth participation in nigerian democracy?
- Objectives of the Study
The study has the following objectives:
- To explore the effort, role and contribution of youth in the nigerian democracy
- To examine the factor hindering the participation of youth in nigerian democracy
- To assess the factors encouraging youth participation in nigerian democracy
- To offer solutions that could encourage youth participation in nigerian democracy.
- Significance of the Study
The research is important to point out that, the negative role of youth in nigerian democracy would be discourage and positive role would be enhanced so as to pave way for peaceful nigerian democracy in Birnin Kebbi. Equally, the study is significant in identifying major areas in which youth participate in nigerian democracy. The study is also important in the sense that, it provides suggestion to enhance the future conduct of free violence election among the youth in Nigeria.
- Research Hypotheses
In consonance with the statement of the research problem, the hypotheses are as follows:
- Literacy among the youth is likely to be a motivating factor in nigerian democracy
- High level of deprivation among the youth is likely to affect youth participation in nigerian democracy.
- Proper public campaigns could serve to motivate youth participation in nigerian democracy.
- Socio-economic status among youth is likely to affect youth participation in nigerian democracy.
- Scope of the Study
Virtually, the youth do participate in many political processes in Nigeria, like engaging in political campaigns, electoral activities among other things.
But, essentially, this
study intends to cover youth participation in nigerian democracy in 2015 general election, choosing Birnin Kebbi metropolis as a case study.
In addition, to the above, the study would only focus on the role of youth in nigerian democracy and factors that hinders the participation of youth in nigerian democracy as well as factors that encourages youth participation in politics within Birnin Kebbi metropolis. With reference to 2015 general election.
- Operationalization of Basic Concepts
- Nigerian democracy
Nigerian democracy is defined as the process of selecting office or representatives of an organization or from vote of its qualified members.
Youth refers to the period between adolescent and adulthood in the post morder era.8
Unicef, defined youth as those group between the age of 15-25 year Jonson, argued, that leadership of youth programme has no upper
age limit their membership has in practice covered people of over 35- 45years.9
- Research Methodology
This deals with what information that could be obtained and how do this work could be obtained and how do this work go about obtaining such information. For the purpose of this research work the following methods are to be used as a main source of data. primary and secondary data.
- Primary and Secondary data is mainly through interviews with some youth in Birnin Kebbi
- Secondary source of data is a sourced from documents, literature, such as journal, magazines, and text books on youth participation in nigerian democracy.
- Sampling procedure and size-ramdom sampling method would be used to sample out respondents from general population. The sampling of sixty (60) questionnaire would be used within Birnin Kebbi, singling out respondent from different location of Birnin Kebbi metropolis. Where the collection of data would not be concentrated on a single location of Birnin Kebbi metropolis. So as to assess the views of the youth using different
- Questionnaire:- The questionnaire would also be used in the collection of data from the respondents. This would be design in a simple and clear language in which the respondent can easily understand. Both open and close ended question would be adopted.
This research work is divided in to five (5) chapters one is general introduction whereby the back ground of the study is out line statement of research problems, aim and objectives, hypotheses, significance of research work, scope and limitations of the study, research methodology and definitions of terms.
Chapter two (2) contain literature review while chapter three (3) deals with the historical background of Birnin Kebbi, chapter four (4) largely concerns with data collection and analysis, that is information gathered from interview conducted lastly, chapter five (5) deals with summary, conclusion and recommendation.
- Mocose (1964); cited in social science encyclopedia, political participation and interaction, published Macmillan, free press 2008, p.14-16
- L.W (1963). Political Participation on How and why, people get involved in politics, published Crown f 2011, p.5
- Kennistone (1972); contraction of reality on youth participation, published Lagos university press 2006, p.3-4
- Ibid 6
- Verba N. (1978). Participation and political equality, published Cambridge university press London, 2005, 7
- Ibid 10
- Umar B. Abubakar (2010) Nigerian troubles with youth, published Sokoto state university press 2014, 9
- Unicef (2012). The Role of Youth in politics, National Development inclining, published in Kaduna State University press 2011, 8
- Jonson (cited in youth participation in Democratization Process, published U.K Press 2008, 6
YOUTHS AND POLITICAL PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA DEMOCRACY