RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES x
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2. Statement of the Problem 4
1.4. Objective of the Study 5
1.5. Research Questions 6
1.6. Research Hypotheses 6
1.7. Significance of the Study 7
1.8. The Scope of the study 8
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction 40
3.2. Research Design 40
3.3. Population of the Study 40
3.4. Sample and Sampling Technique 41
3.5. Instrumentation 42
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 43
3.7. Statistical Analysis Procedure 44
CHAPTER FOURRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1. Introduction 45
4.2. Respondents‟ Personal Information 45
4.3. Research Items 48
4.4. Hypotheses Test 56
4.5. Achievement Test 59
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1. Introduction 63
5.2. Summary of the Finding 63
5.3. Conclusions 64
5.4. Recommendation 65
5.5. Suggestion for further Studies 66
Background of the Study
Increasingly, nations need a skilled, knowledgeable workforce and a citizenry equipped to function in a complex world. This can only be achieved through a sound understanding of science and technology. Science is a major tool for change in the modern world. Science is most often referred to as a way of pursuing knowledge. It is associated with scientific method itself, as a disciplined way to study natural world. Science is the bedrock of all technological advancement (Onifade, 2001), the scientific feat has turned the world into a global village and turned those who are not technologically advanced to mere pawns in the game of survival. There is an increasing demand for professional practicing scientists everywhere. There is rapid increase in scientific knowledge, which has resulted in a mass of new materials being incorporated into the school syllabus. Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Mathematics is bedrock of science and technology, without mathematics there is no real development in science and technology (Ezielo, 1975). Mathematics has all through the years been an important subject both in the role it plays in everyday activities and in its usefulness to other sciences. Mathematics is a body of knowledge centered on concepts such as quantity, structure, space, change and also the academic discipline that studies them (Pierce, 2007). Mathematics is further defined by Pierce as the science that draws necessary conclusions. Other practitioners of mathematics such as Sowmya (2005), maintains that Mathematics is a science of pattern and highly needed in everyday life. According to Agwagah (2008), mathematics is the study of numbers, shapes, quantity, structure, and change or describe things (Macmillan Dictionary, 2007). Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855) known as the “Prince of Mathematicians” also refers mathematics to as “the Queen of the Sciences” and the bedrock of other sciences. These definitions emphasize the importance of mathematics.
Mathematics is widely used throughout the world, in human life and many fields including Social Sciences, Natural Sciences, Engineering, Medicine and Education. It is a vital tool in science, commerce and technology. According to Iji (2007), mathematics provides an important key to understanding of the world. In the areas of buying and selling, communication, timing, measurement, molding, recording among others, the importance is highly acknowledged. Mathematics is one of the core subjects in both junior and senior secondary school curricula in Nigeria, which justifies its recognition as being essential in the development of technological advancement in Nigeria. The Federal Government of Nigeria made Mathematics compulsory and one of the core subjects in both primary and secondary schools because of its usefulness (FGN, 2004). Some of the roles of mathematics according to Nurudeen (2007), includes: its ability to enhance the thinking capabilities of individuals by making them to be more creative, reasonable, rational as well as imaginative. There is no school curriculum or a national development planning which does not take cognizance of the usefulness and development in school mathematics.
Despite the importance of mathematics, there are a number of observable problems associated with its teaching and learning, especially at the secondary school level. These problems include poor method of instruction (Kalijah, 2002). This is supported by the assertion of Agommuoh and Nzewi (2003) that attributed the deterioration in students’ achievement in mathematics to ineffective method of teaching. It requires the ability to use algebra and geometry, this makes the learning of mathematics particularly difficult for many students (Redish, 1994). Ogunleye (2001) prioritizes the lack of adequate qualified and experienced mathematics teachers and of laboratory equipment as two major recurring problems of teaching mathematics in secondary schools. Angell (2004) pointed out that students find mathematics difficult because they have to contend with different representations such as formulas and calculations, graphs and conceptual explanations at the same time. In developed countries, it has been observed that students’ success in mathematics is lower than chemistry and biology, that students do not like science lectures and that most have no preference for science, particularly physics (Mattern and Schau 2002, Rward and Straw 2000).
It is claimed that academic success or failure is related to many factors. In general, various studies that attempt to explain academic success or failure do so by beginning with three elements that intervene in education; parents (family causal factor), students (personal causal factor) and teachers (academic causal factors) (Diaz 2003). However, students’ dwindling performance in Physics in public examinations is so worrisome and this has led many researchers into investigating the factors that could be responsible for this. Among the variables identified are: Students’ poor study habit, low self-esteem, teacher factors (teacher quality), shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate teaching facilities in Schools, home and school environmental factors, and so on (Oludipe, 2002, Aluko, 2010, Ifesanwo, 2012, Lawal, 2012, and Omotayo, 2012). Adodo (2007) argued that one key overriding factor for the success of students’ academic achievement is the teacher. Orleans (2007) asserts that the key factor in what comes out at the end of schooling is what goes on in the classroom. Mills (as cited in Wambugu and Changeiywo, 2008), states that teaching methods are crucial factors that affect the academic achievement of students, and no matter how well-developed and comprehensive a curriculum is, its success is dependent on the quality of the teachers implementing it (Ajaja, 2009; Ughamadu, 2005). Usman, (2003) argued that shortage of qualified teachers is responsible for the poor academic achievement observable among the students. The West African Examination Council (2009) report stated that “poor knowledge of subject matter, inadequate preparation and poor labeling of diagrams were some of the weaknesses that adversely affected candidates’ performance.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Over the years, students’ achievement in mathematics has prompted educational researchers to continuously make relentless efforts at identifying mitigating factors that might account for the observed poor performance. Some research studies suggest that factors inside and outside the classroom affect students’ achievement and interest. Among other variables identified are: Students’ poor study habit, low self-esteem, teacher factors (teacher quality), shortage of qualified teachers, inadequate teaching facilities in Schools, home factor, school environmental factors and many others. Despite their efforts, students continue to exhibit poor performance in the subject.
In this vein, teacher factor has been linked to be one of the causes of students’ poor performance, in this sense there is need to look into the quality of teachers in our secondary schools because effective teaching elicit effective learning. Teacher is the principal initiator of learning. Therefore, this study is designed to survey the effect of teachers’ academic qualification on students’ achievement in mathematics.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
To examine the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on NCE certification.
To examine the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on B.ed degree certification.
To examine the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on post-graduate diploma certification.
1.4 Research Questions
What is the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on NCE certification?
What is the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on B.ed degree certification.
What is the effect of teachers qualification and students performance based on post-graduate diploma certification.
There is no effect of between teachers qualification and students performance based on NCE certification.
There is no effect of between teachers qualification and students performance based on B.ed degree certification.
There is no effect of between teachers qualification and students performance based on post-graduate diploma certification.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study examines teachers’ academic qualification and experience on students’ achievement in mathematics. Findings from this study would be very useful to the teachers and other stake holders in Education sector on which of the quality indicators that contribute positively to students’ achievement and interest in mathematics, thereby charging them to work towards developing and applying it in classroom practices. The findings from the study will also bring to an end the long search by educational researchers, a remedy to the problem of students’ poor performance in mathematics. It will also be significant to the Education agencies to always monitor the quality of teachers they post to schools.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study was carried out on senior secondary two (SS2) mathematics students and their teachers in some selected government owned secondary schools in Jega educational zone of Kebbi state, Nigeria. The study covers the following; subject matter knowledge, teachers’ experience, teachers’ academic qualification, and teacher-student relationship.
1.8 Limitations of the study
In every research work, it is likely that the researcher may encounter some limitations. The researcher encountered some challenges during the period of carrying out this research. Some of these challenges include the dearth of materials for a proper and effective research work constituted a major limitation. Again, how to get the true and required information from the students through questionnaire also constituted a constraint in the study.
Finally, there was the problem of convincing the students on the primary objectives of the questionnaire so as to give the true and required information. However, the intervention of the class teachers in the schools who took time to clear the air and convince his students helped the investigator to administer the instrument successfully.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHERS QUALIFICATION AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL