IMPACT OF AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN JIGAWA STATE
This study focused on “Impact of Agents of Socialization on the Academic Performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State”. To achieve this, four hypotheses and research questions each were formulated. The research work adopted survey method of descriptive research design due to the large population of the area. The population of the study consisted of (649) teachers and (3000) students. The instrument used for collecting data is questionnaire, stratified random sampling techniques was adopted in getting the sample of the study. The sample size of the study comprised of (240) teachers and (340) students making a total of (580) respondents as indicated in the Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table for determining sample size. The data collected was presented in frequencies and percentages and later subjected to t-test analysis. The instrument was subject to reliability test and was found worthy to test what it is intend to measure. A pilot test was conducted where the instrument was verified at 0.75 reliability coefficient level. All the hypotheses were tested using t-test at 0.05 significant level. However all hypotheses were retained. The study revealed that agents of socialization have positive impact on the academic performance of JSS social studies students in Jigawa state. In the light of these findings it was recommended that all agents of socializing JSS students especially family, school and mass media should work collectively toward inculcating moral and religious values, vocational guidance, social and civic consciousness, spirit of patriotism, respect for constituted authority and several virtues that enable them to become responsible members of the society and enhance their academic performance.
1.1 Background to the Study
Every group or society has its norms and values which its members learn and pass to the next generation. These norms and values differ from one culture to another; for example people speak different languages, have different mode of dressing, different patterns of behavior as well as rules and regulations (Okonkwo, 2007). Therefore in the light of this, when a child is born he does not fit into these skills immediately. He has to go through a series of learning tasks because the child at birth is a biological being but not a social being. He is both physically and mentally helpless and hence his dependence on parents for all his requirements.
Gotep (1999) is of the opinion that when we were born, we found society already there. Consequently, in our societies, certain individuals, groups, places, things, events, situations and values exist which provide socializing experiences as we are exposed to them. Different ways of learning and different agencies of socialization follow one another in more or less orderly sequences as the individual passes from one stage of life cycle to the other. In the light of this, a new born baby is anti social at birth, but for him to become an integrated member of his society, he must go through the process of understanding the community’s needs, practices and patterns of behavior and it is this process that is called socialization. Thus, Hassan (2004) defines socialization “as a means through which people learn ideas and skills that enable them to interact with others properly”.
According to NTI (2000), socialization is a process by which individual members learn the acceptable norms and values of their society in order to behave in a way that is regarded as acceptable. This implies that a child is born physically helpless and therefore depends on other people for everything. He cannot speak nor communicate with others about his pains or pleasure. He learns how to walk, wear dresses, run about, eat and so on, but with experience, he becomes physically independent.ocialization is a continuous process which begins from birth to death. It transforms and infants into complete human beings who are able to participate actively in the social relations of his community. Socialization appears to be most intense during the early years in life, but in reality it goes on through out life cycle. At every stage of life, people learn new skills, new roles and new ways of adjusting to their positions. As a young child, a person may behave in a certain way such as crying in public without shame. As an adult he tends to behave differently (Okonkwo, 2007).
Furthermore, Ekpiwre (2005) is of the opinion that socialization which is of two categories that is, primary and secondary, are largely independent of each other toward a successful end. However, the secondary socialization will always be very successful anytime the primary socialization is given a solid background. For example, a child that is shy, weak and cowardly is most likely to get into secondary socialization and still be found in the same manner because early experiences have greater impact on the behaviour of children than later experiences.
Gotep (1999) is of the opinion that education on the other hand has remained a veritable social process in capacity building and maintenance of society for decades. It is a weapon for acquiring skills, relevant knowledge and habits for surviving in the changing world. However, in the light of the historical antecedence of the Nigerian educational system, rampant changes in the educational policies of the country for example, from 7-5-3-4 to 6-3-3-4 to 9-3-4 and many other changes that are negative for the educational development of the country drastically affect the socialization process of the learners.
The 6-3-3-4 system of education was initiated to replace various dichotomies in the educational system practised in different parts of the country. Without proper postmortem, Nigeria Government replaced the 6-3-3-4 with 9-3-4 system of education. Changes are unavoidable, but process of changes in the curriculum must be reviewed. Ben-Yunusa (2000) is of the opinion that educational system should be allowed for a fairly long period of time for proper assessment, sustenance and criticisms. The nine year basic education is though a welcome step towards quality education in this country, but it was introduced into educational system without due consultation of the curriculum developers and implementers more especially classroom teachers.
However, according to Obe (2008) subjects like English language, Mathematics, Social Studies, Physical and Health Education, Islamic Studies and so on should be reviewed from time to time. In fact all these modification affect the socialization process of the students because socialization includes only those changes which occurred through learning process. Other changes which occurred as a result of physical growth, are not socialization process.
In addition, Barau (2004) opined that academic performance refers to level of individual’s educational attainment as determined by comparing his scores in a test with the average scores of others at the same level. For example, the academic performance of a student in social studies includes observable and measurable behaviour of that student at any point in time during a course. In social studies, student’s academic performance consists of his scores obtained from a teacher made test. In other words, academic performance of students consists of scores obtained from teacher-made tests that is, first semester examination, midsemester test and so on.
According to Shittu (2004), students’ academic performance is affected by many factors such as socio-Economic status of the family; students’ learning environment; poor government policies such as politicization of education through giving automatic promotion to students in the Primary and Secondary Schools by some political parties in some states helped greatly in the production of unqualified students at the final classes leading to mass failure of such students at the final examinations.
In the light of the above, socialization as opined by Eteng (1980) can only take place through certain establishedagencies in the society which include family, peer group, school, religious institutions, mass media and so on. Among these agents some Sociologists like Auguste Comte, Herbert Spencer, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber believed the family is the most important to the Child’s development, because within the family, we learn self–concept, cultural values, norms, knowledge, skills, traditions, habits, patterns of behaviour which make us acceptable members of the society.
The study attempted to investigate the impact of these agencies on the academic performance of social studies students in order to ascertain whether these agencies as contained in the Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum have positive or negative impact on the academic performance of such level of students in Junior Secondary School (JSS III) in Jigawa state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The survival and progress of any nation depend largely on the way of life of the individual members of the society. Over the years, Nigerian society has increasingly lost its sense of values due to socialization problems. Thus, more people, especially the youth, are found engaged in evil acts like greediness, brutality, sexual immorality, cultism, corruption, armed robbery, alcoholism, tribalism, drug abuse and addiction, examination malpractices, high rate of indiscipline among students, adaptation of foreign cultures in the name of civilization, unacceptable, immoral, criminal and violent films produced by mass media, disrespect for constituted authorities which culminatively yield a society of neither African nor western in nature and several others which negatively affect the socialization process of students thereby resulting into mass failure in examinations as well as poor academic performance.
This study intended to ascertain whether the agencies of socialization have positive or negative impact on the academic performance of social studies students in selected junior secondary schools in Jigawa state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study set out to achieve the following objectives:
- To examine the role of family as an agent of socialization on the academic performance of Social Studies Students in some Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state
- To identify the impact of the school as an agent of socialization on the academic performance of Social Studies Students in some Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state.
- To ascertain the contribution of mass media as an agent of socialization on the academic performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary School in Jigawa state.
- To examine whether differences exist between the socialization process of male and female students of Junior Secondary School in Jigawa state and the status of their academic performance.
1.4. Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated in order to guide the research:
- To what extent does family as an agent of socialization play a role on the academic performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state?
- What are the impacts of the school as an agent of socialization on the academic performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state?
- To what extent does mass media as an agent of socialization contribute to the academic performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state?
- Is there any difference in the academic performance of male and female students of JSS in Jigawa state based on their exposure to socialization processes.
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of teachers and students on the role of family as an agent of socialization on academic performance of social studies students in junior secondary school in Jigawa state.
- There is no significant difference in the opinion of teachers and students on the academic performance of junior secondary schools social studies students based on their school socialization in Jigawa state.
- There is no significant difference in the views of teachers and students regarding the role of the spocializaiton process in influencing academic performance of junior secondary schools students in Jigawa state.
- There is no significant difference in the view of teachers and students regarding the role of socialization in influencing academic performance of male and female students of JSS social studies in Jigawa state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The importance of conducting a research on the impact of agents of socialization on the academic performance of social studies students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa state can not be over emphasized, since socialization problems constitute a menace to the youth and the society at large.
Therefore in the light of this, it is hoped that the findings from the study will:-
Help students to be familiar with the impact of socialization agencies more especially family, school and mass media on their academic performance.
It is hoped that the findings of the study will help the State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) in formulating policies which will serve as prescription for the control of delinquent behaviours due to the influence of peer group among Junior Secondary School Students. The findings from the study will also help the government and general public with vital information on how children should be socialized right from birth to maturity through various agents responsible for the socialization process.
The findings from the study will assist the guidance cousellors to device means of helping students who find it difficult to fit into the society to do as it demand due to the side – effect of broken home on the socialization process thereby changing their attitude for the better.
The findings from the study will invariably serve as directional guide and reference sources to curriculum planners if the responses of the respondents proved positive.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The nine educational zones consist of two to three local government areas in the state, but this study covers all the JSS from only one local government area in each of the nine educational zones of Jigawa state due to the large population of the area. It covers only the Impact of Agents of socialization on the Academic Performance of Social Studies Students in Junior Secondary Schools in Jigawa State. However, only Junior Secondary School III Students in the selected schools were used in the study. The study is also delimited to all the teachers of JSS III students.
Furthermore, due to the fact that socialization is a learning process by which infants are transformed into normal human beings possessed of culture and are able to participate in other social relations, is a process which begins right from home, passing through peer group, getting wider at schooling and continue after graduation as well as at the place of work, social clubs, religious institutions, mass media and through out one’s life time. In fact it is believed that in a research of this nature constraints are bound to occur.
In the course of this research work, the researcher encountered time constraints, dearth of literature materials in the study area and insufficient financial base at the researcher’s disposal.
IMPACT OF AGENTS OF SOCIALIZATION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SOCIAL STUDIES STUDENTS IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN JIGAWA STATE