DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RAT ANTI DIABETIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Cymbopogon citratus (LEMON GRASS) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED

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DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RAT ANTI DIABETIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Cymbopogon citratus (LEMON GRASS) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page                                                                                          i

Certification                                                                                       ii

Declaration                                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgement                                                                              v

Table of Content                                                                                vi

Abstract                                                                                             vii

CHAPTER ONE:                    

1.0        Introduction                                                                              1

1.1        Statement of the Problem                                                          3

1.2        Aim and Objectives                                                                  3

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0History of Diabetes                                                                            4

2.1Prevalence of Diabetes                                                                        5

2.2 Types of Diabetes Mellitus                                                                                  5

2.3  Causes of Diabetes Mellitus                                                                   6

2.4 Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus                                                                7

2.5 Complications of Diabetes Mellitus                                                                     7

2.6  Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus                                                                            8

2.7 Prevention of Diabetes                                                                                         9

2.8 Management of Diabetes                                                                                      9

2.9 Phytochemical Nutrients in Plants                                                                        10

2.10 Plant Description (Cymbopogon citratus)                                                          12

2.11 Taxonomical Classification                                                                                13

2.12 Phytochemistry of the Plant                                                                               14

2.13 Uses of the Plant                                                                                                 14

2.14 Pharmacology                                                                                                     14

2.15 Nutritional Benefits                                                                                            15

2.16 Cymbopogon citratus and Diabetes                                                                    15

2.17 Inducers of Diabetes (Alloxan monohydrate)                                                    16

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.0 Materials                                                                                                       18

3.1Experimental Animals                                                                        18

3.2 Apparatus                                                                                                            18

3.3 Chemicals/Reagents                                                                                             19

3.4 Location of Study                                                                            19

3.5 Methanolic Extraction                                                                        19

3.6 Induction of Diabetes                                                                                     19

3.7Experimental Design                                                                                    20

3.8 Percentage Yield of Extract                                                                           21

3.9 Phytochemical screening of Cymbopogon citratus Extract                           21

3.10 Collection of Blood Samples and Preparation of Sera for

Biochemical Analysis                                                                                     22

3.11 Glycated Haemoglobin/Glycohaemoglobin Test                                               23

3.12 Lipid Profile Test                                                                                                23

3.13 Statistical Analysis                                                                                             28

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULT

4.0 Qualitative Analysis                                                                           29

4.1 Plasma Glucose Level of Albino Rats                                                   31

4.2 Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on the Plasma Glucose Level

of Body Weight                                                                                                    35

4.3 Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on Lipid Profile                                                  38

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0Discussion                                                                                                      41

5.1Conclusion                                                                                                   42

5.2 Recommendations                                                                        43

REFERENCE                                                                                   44

 

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                         Page

1        Results of Qualitative Screening for Phytochemical Ingredients in

methanolic extract of Cymbopogon citratus                                                               29

2        Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on the plasma glucose level of Albino rats              30

3        Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on Body Weight of Albino rats                                34

4        Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on Lipid Profile of Albino rats                                 37

 LIST OF FIGURES

Figures                                                                                                        Page

  1. Cymbopogan citratus Plant                                                                                        13
  2. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on the plasma glucose level of albino rats               33
  3. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on the body weight of albino rats                             36
  4. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on lipid profile of albino rats                                   39
  5. Effect of Cymbopogon citratus on Glycohemoglobin percentage on albino rats      40

 

ABSTRACT

The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of the methanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus on the hyperglycemic, hyperlipidemic and glycated hemoglobin levels of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Twenty male albino rats were used for the study and divided into four groups having five rats each. The non-diabetic groups (Normal control) were not induced, but administered 1ml of 0.9% of normal saline daily for 14 days. The diabetic group (Negative control) were induced and not given any treatment for this period. The standard group was treated with a standard drug (glibenclamide) at 5mg/kg.b.wt/day and the fourth group was treated with plant extract (Cymbopogon citratus) (150mg/kg.b.wt/day). Treatments was carried out for fourteen days, the glucose levels and body weights were determined at the end of every week, and serum lipid profile was determined at the end of the experiment. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) in fasting blood glucose (FBG) between the diabetic control (DC) group and the diabetic treatment groups and a decrease in the diabetic control groups. In the lipid profile, there was a significant reduction at (P<0.05) in the TC and GHg between the extract treated and glibenclamide treated compared with the diabetic control. And a significant reduction in HDL of the extract treated (P<0.05) in HDL of the extract treated compared with glibenclamide and diabetic group. And there was no significant difference at (P<0.05) in LDL and Triglyceride levels of extract diabetic control groups and diabetic treatment groups. The results suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus may possess anti hyperglycemic and antilipidemic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0       Introduction

Diabetes mellitus characterized by elevated blood glucose level is basically a metabolic disorder arising from insufficient insulin production by the beta cells of the pancreas (Patel et al., 2008). Individuals with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature mortality (Sarwar et al., 2010). Globally about 190million population having different age groups are affected by diabetes mellitus and is one of the most prominent cause of impairment and death worldwide (Klarin, 1993).

Diabetes mellitus long considered disease of minor significance to world health, is now taking its place as one of the main threads to human wealth in 21st century As at 2010, the incidence of the disease in general population was 210 million and is estimated to increase to 300million by the year 2025 (Rotella, 2004) the global increase in diabetes will occur due to population ageing and growth also because of the increase in trends towards obesity unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles (Juliana et al., 2009). Diabetes mellitus symptoms include polyphagia (increased hunger). Due to hyperglycemia malfunctioning and dysfunction of various organs such as heart (mainly myocardial infection), kidneys (diabetic nephropathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), eyes (diabetic retinopathy) usually occur (Zucch et al., 2005).

The high rate at which diabetes mellitus is on the increase worldwide is what is propelling researchers to investigate traditional medicinal plants that can be used for the management of the disorder. Natural herbs are plants or plant parts used for their therapeutic properties, scents or flavors. Presently, there is growing interest in herbal remedies due to the side effects associated with the oral hypoglycemic agents (therapeutic agent) for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (Upendra Rao et al., 2010).

Herbal products are rich in phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids and other constituents (Ji et al., 2009). In traditional Africa societies, phyto therapy is highly valued and widely utilized Marle and Farnsworth estimated that more than 1000 species are being used as folk medicine for diabetes (Marles and Farsworth 1995). The use of herbal plants for the management of certain diseases is due to their perceived effectiveness, fewer side effects in clinical experience and relatively low costs. (Verspohl, 2002) the phytoconstituents in herbal drugs greatly influence metabolic activities which directly affect glucose level that have been investigated and found to be effective and save for the lowring effect of blood sugar level include Combretum micrathum, Elephantopus scaber, Ricinus communis, Sarcopoterium ass (Cymbopogon citratus,  spinosum anthelmintica and vernonia  anthelmintica(Upendra Rao et al., 2010).

Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus ) is a perennial grass plant wildly distribute worldwide especially in tropical and subtropical countries (Fracisco et al., 2011). The plant could grow up to 6 inches high with bulblike stems consisting of terete and glabrous linearly venated sheathed leaves with narrow base and acute apex. When squeezed, the leaves produces yellow or amber coloured, aromatic, essential oil (Adejuwon and Esther, 2007) Lemon grass is a mildly diuretic and a stimulant tonic herb commonly used as spice, tea and in food preparations (okpashi et al., 2014). It possesses anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, anxiolytic and anti-hypertensive properties (Olorunnisola et al., 2014). It also has therapeutic and pharmacological effect on body tissues that aids in digestion, muscle cramps, relieves spasms, vascular disorder, pneumonia, rheumatism and headache (Vanisha and Hema, 2012).

1.1       Statement of the Problem

Looking at the rate of prevalence of diabetes in the world today and the guestimated figure by WHO in the nearest future which is quite alarming has necessitated researches into discovering and developing drugs from natural sources (plants) that can help to remedy the prevalence of the disease condition worldwide since reliance on synthetic drugs comes with side effects and tend to be cost effective for the common man in the society (Patil, 2010).

1.2       Aims and Objectives

This research is aimed at analysing the phytochemical constituents of Cymbopogon citratus  and its anti-diabetic properties on alloxan induced diabetic rats for the purpose of management and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

Objective

  • To determine the phytochemical constituents of methanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus .
  • To determine the antihyperglycemic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus  in alloxan induced albino diabetic rats.
  • To determine the antihyperlipidemic effects of methanolic leaf extract of Cymbopogon citratus  in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.
  • To determine the effect of methanolic leaves extract of Cymbopogon citratus  on glycohemoglobin levels in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats.

DIABETIC MALE ALBINO RAT ANTI DIABETIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF Cymbopogon citratus (LEMON GRASS) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED

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