EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM, LINN (GARLIC) IN THE PREVENTION OF PASTEURELLOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAILS

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM, LINN (GARLIC) IN THE PREVENTION OF PASTEURELLOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAILS

 

Abstract

 

Indiscriminate use of antibiotic in animals and human to control bacterial disease create resistant bacteria. It is therefore imperative to seek alternative treatment for the control of Pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida mitltocida A:4 in quails. Quail meat and eggs are renowned for their high quality protein and low caloric values. Garlic is bactericidal, cheap and available without toxicological effects. One hundred, four (4) week old Japanese male and female quails (Coturnix coturnix japonicd) were randomly divided into ten groups (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I and J) of ten birds each. Group A was not inoculated with Pasteurella multocida multocida serotype A:4 at 104 colony forming unit (cfu/ml), thus serving as negative control. Group B was inoculated with Pasteurella multocida multocida serotype A:4 as positive control for comparism without treatment, Group C was inoculated and treated with ciprofloxacin, group D, E and F were inoculated and treated with garlic in feed at 3%, 5% and 10% respectively, groups G to J were inoculated and treated with garlic in water at 1%, 1.67%, 3.3% and 3.3% respectively. Ciprofloxacin in water and garlic infeed or water were administered three (3) days before inoculation. All the groups B to I were inoculated with Pasteurella multocida mulocida serotype A:4 at 104, (cfu)/bird except group J that was inoculated with 106cfu/bird. Half of the infective dose was administered intranasally while the second half was given intramuscularly (pectoral muscle). Clinical signs, morbidity and mortality rates were monitored for 13 more days. The values of packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TP) body weight gain (BWG) were determined. Gross and microscopic lesions in sections of heart, liver and spleen were evaluated on days two (2) and 13 post inoculation in all the groups for comparism. Daily cloacal temperature were also taken. The effect of ciprofloxacin, garlic concentrations in-feed, and water were determined based on mortality at the end of the experiment. The results showed that there was loss of appetite, somnolence and hurdling together were initially noted a day postinoculation in groups B, F, G and I. The value of PVC were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in all the inoculated groups. However, there was significant (p<0.05) increment in PCV after 4-5 days post inoculation. There was significant increase (P<0.05) in temperature in all the groups that were inoculated as compared to the negative control (group A). However, these temperature dropped to normal values including the negative control (group A) except in the positive control (Group B). Generally, there was increase in body weight gain in all groups. On day three (3) post inoculation, microscopic sections of the spleen of quails inoculated with Pasteurella multocida muhocida A:4 showed depletion of lymphocytes at the germinal centres. In the liver, there were fatty degeneration, congested sinusoids and distorted hepatic architecture while the heart had mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, at 13 days post inoculation, the spleen, liver and heart showed normal photomicrograph. Mortality started a day post inoculation and ended five (5) days post inoculation. The highest reduction of mortality was observed in ciprofloxacin treated water at 10% concentration (mortality rate 20%) followed by garlic treated water at 3.3%. Concentration (mortality rate 30%). Garlic at 3.3% concentration in water reduced the effect of pasteurellosis.

 

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF ALLIUM SATIVUM, LINN (GARLIC) IN THE PREVENTION OF PASTEURELLOSIS IN JAPANESE QUAILS

 

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