EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER PROPERTIES OF THE STEM-BARK EXTRACTS OF Khaya senegalensis (Desr.)

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EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER PROPERTIES OF THE STEM-BARK EXTRACTS OF Khaya senegalensis (Desr.)

 

Abstract:

 

The aim of the study was to evaluate the antiulcer properties of the stem-bark extracts of Khaya senegalensis in albino rats. The fresh stem-bark of K. senegalensis was collected and made into powdered form using a mortar and pestle. The powdered form of the bark was cold extracted using methanol. The crude methanol extract (CME) was concentrated to dryness using rotary evaporator. The solid extract was further dissolved in distilled water and partitioned using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The aqueous methanol (AMF), hexane (HEF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions were also concentrated in vacuo. The CME, AMF, HEF and EAF were screened for the presence of phytochemical constituents using standard techniques. Similarly the AMF, HEF and EAF were evaluated for acute toxicity, gastric anti-secretory effects and gastroprotective effects using a rat-model. The stomach homogenates were assayed for levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Sample of the stomach tissues obtained from all treated rats were fixed in 10 % formalin and process for histopathological examination. The LD50 was calculated to be >5000 mg/kg. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids/triterpenes, alkaloids and tannins in the CME and AMF. The EAF contains all the metabolites except alkaloids while the HEF contains only steroids/triterpenes and flavonoids. The n-hexane (HEF), ethyl acetate (EAF) and the aqueous methanol (AMF) fractions did not produce any apparent toxic effect or mortality when tested at doses between 10 and 5000 mg/kg and the LD50 was assumed to be ≥5000 mg/kg. The EAF decreases significantly (p<0.05) the concentration of gastric HCl viii in rats when given at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg. Similarly, the AMF significantly (p<0.05) decreased gastric HCl secretion at a dose of 800 mg/kg only. The ulcer indices of rats treated with the AMF, EAF and HEF at 200, 400, 800 mg/kg and misoprostol (5μg/kg) were found to be significantly (p<0.05) lower when compared with the normal saline (untreated) control group. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the concentration of gastric mucus in rats treated with the AMF, EAF and HEF (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg) when compared with the normal saline (untreated) control group. The AMF and EAF significantly (p<0.05) reduced the concentration of malondialdehyde in the gastric tissue relative to rats treated with normal saline (5 ml/kg). There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the SOD activity of the groups treated with AMF, EAF and HEF when compared with the normal saline (untreated) control group. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the CAT activity of the groups treated with AMF and EAF when compared with the normal saline (untreated) control group. The stomach tissue was also processed for histopathological examinations. Histopathological changes were observed in the stomach of rats treated with AMF at the dose of 200 (necrosis and loss of epithelium lining) and 400 mg/kg (mild disruption on the surface epithelium), but no changes observed in the stomach of rats treated with AMF at the dose of 800 mg/kg (no disruption to the surface epithelium). The EAF treated groups at the dose of 200 (mild excoriation of the epithelium lining), 400 (loss of epithelium lining) and 800 mg/kg (mild loss of epithelium lining) showed milder lesions to the surface epithelium. Mild disruption to the surface epithelium were also observed in rats treated with HEF 800 mg/kg. The normal saline untreated group showed severe necrosis and loss of epithelium lining. In conclusion, this study suggests that the extracts of K. senegalensis have anti-secretory, cytoprotective and antioxidant properties similar to that of a standard drug.

 

EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-ULCER PROPERTIES OF THE STEM-BARK EXTRACTS OF Khaya senegalensis (Desr.)

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