HAEMATOLOGICAL AND SERUM BIOCHEMICAL VALUES OF SOME SPECIES OF APPARENTLY HEALTHY FREE-LIVINGWILD BIRDS IN ZARIA, NIGERIA
This research was carried out to establish baseline haematological and serum biochemical parameters of some species of apparently healthy free-living wild birds in Zaria, Nigeria. A total of 240 free-living wild birds, belonging to 12 species, comprising 20 each of Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis), Bruce‟s Green Pigeon (Treron waalia), Speckled Pigeon (Columba guinea), Mourning Collar-Dove (Streptopelia decipiens), Senegal Parrot (Poicephalus senegalus), Rose-Ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri), Little Weaver Bird (Ploceus luteolus), Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis), White-Rumped Swift (Apuscaffer), Red-Billed Quelea (Quelea quelea), African Silver-Billed (Euodicecantans) and Northern Red Bishop (Euplectes frascisca) were used for the experiment. Haematocrit and Natt-Herrick‟s method were used for the packed cell volume, and total white and red cell counts, respectively, and thin blood smear technique was used for the differential leucocyte and estimated thrombocyte counts. The Audiocomb serum auto-analyser was used for biochemical analyses. The highest values for PCV (46.25±1.43%), Hb concentration (17.75±5.31 g/dl) and RBC count (5.24±0.32 x1012/l) were obtained from the apparently healthy White-Rumped Swift (WRS), Cattle Egret (CE) and African Silver Billed (ASB), respectively. The lowest PCV (31.98±1.67%) and Hb concentration (11.81±0.56 g/dl) were obtained from the apparently healthy Bruce‟s Green Pigeon (BGP), while the apparently healthy CE had the lowest RBC count (2.86±0.14 x1012/l). The apparently healthy Senegal Parrot (SNG) had the highest TWBC (3.36±0.44 x109/l), and also had similar value with the apparently healthy BGP for highest value for monocyte count (0.13±0.03 x109/l). The apparently healthy WRS had the highest eosinophil (0.15±0.04 x109/l) and basophil (0.08±0.02 x109/l) counts. The apparently healthy Rose-Ringed Parakeet (RRP) and CE had the highest lymphocyte (2.47±0.23 x 109/l) and heterophil (0.62±0.11 x 109/l) counts respectively. The apparently healthy ASB had the lowest TWBC (0.63±0.08 x 109/l), lymphocyte (0.54±0.08 x 109/l), heterophil (0.04±0.02 x 109/l), basophil (0.01±0.00 x 109/l) and monocyte (0.01±0.00 x 109/l) counts, and also had similar lowest mean values with the apparently healthy Northern Red Bishop (NRB) and Red Billed Quelea (RBQ) for eosinophil (0.01±0.00 x 109/l) count. The H/L ratio was highest in apparently healthy ASB (1.95±1.90) and lowest in Morning Collar Dove (MCD) (0.08±0.01). Apparently healthy SNG had the highest estimated thrombocyte count (0.92±0.17 x109/l), while apparently healthy ASB had the lowest mean estimated thrombocyte count (0.06±0.01 x109/l). The highest glucose (154.70±5.72 mg/dl), creatinine (0.49±0.02 mg/dl) and urea (5.53±0.28 mg/dl) concentrations were obtained from the apparently healthy MCD, BGP and Speckled Pigeon (SP), respectively. Except for serum calcium concentration (2.64±0.05 mg/dl) which was highest in the apparently healthy CE, the glucose (139.20±4.64 mg/dl), urea (4.24±0.15 mg/dl), total protein (6.65±0.10 g/dl) and albumin (3.77±0.10 g/dl) concentrations were lowest in this species of bird. The apparently healthy Laughing Dove (LD) and SNG had the lowest creatinine concentration (0.43±0.01 mg/dl), but the latter recorded highest albumin concentration (3.99±0.10 g/dl). The total protein (6.93±0.10 g/dl) and globulin concentration (2.97±0.04 g/dl) were highest in the apparently healthy LD, although it recorded lowest calcium (2.45±0.02 mg/dl) and phosphorus (0.83±0.06 mg/dl) concentrations. The apparently healthy RRP had the highest phosphorus concentration (1.05±0.03 mg/dl) and lowest globulin fraction (2.89±0.05 g/dl). The overall range values for PCV, Hb, RBC, TWBC, heterophil, lymphocyte, basophil, eosinophil, monocyte counts, H/L ratio and thrombocyte count for all the free-living wild birds used in this study were31.98±1.67 to 46.25±1.43%, 11.81±0.56 to 17.75±5.31 g/dl, 2.86±0.14 to 5.24±0.3 x1012/l, 0.63±0.08 to 3.36±0.44×109/l, 0.04±0.02 to 0.62±0.11 x109/l, 0.54±0.08 to 2.47±0.23 x109/l, 0.01±0.00 to 0.08±0.02 x109/l, 0.01±0.00 to 0.15±0.04 x109/l, 0.01±0.00 to 0.13±0.03 x109/l, 0.08±0.01 to 1.95±1.90 and 0.06±0.01 to 0.92±0.17 x109/l, respectively. The overall range values for serum glucose, urea, creatinine, TP, albumin, globulin, calcium and phosphorus concentration for all the free-living wild birds used in this study were 139.20±4.64 to 154.70±5.72 mg/dl, 4.24±0.15 to 5.53±0.28 mg/dl, 0.43±0.01 to 0.49±0.02 mg/dl, 6.65±0.10 to 6.93±0.10 g/dl, 3.77±0.10 to 3.99±0.10 g/dl, 2.89±0.05 to 2.97±0.04 g/dl, 2.45±0.02 to 2.64±0.05 mg/dl and 0.83±0.06 to 1.05±0.03 mg/dl, respectively. It was concluded that there were interspecies differences in both haematological and serum biochemical parameters of the apparently healthy free-living wild birds studied.