Artificial Intelligence and its Applications
From SIRI to self-driving cars, google search algorithms, Alexa and robots with human-like characteristics, artificial intelligence is responsible for a lot of technological developments witnessed in our world today.
Artificial intelligence abbreviated as AI and sometimes called machine intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence in machines. These simulated machines are able to think like humans and mimic the actions of humans.
Computer scientists describe AI as the study of artificial agents; any device or machine that perceives its environment and sends responses that increases its chance of achieving its goals successfully. These machines mimic cognitive functions associated with the human mind like, the ability to learn and solve problems.
Artificial intelligence is characterized by;
- The ability to correctly interpret data from external source.
- Learn from interpreted data.
- Use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks.
- Possess flexible adaptation skills.
Artificial intelligence is classified into 3 systems namely;
- Analytical system: Has only characteristics of cognitive intelligence (learning and solving problems). It uses learning based on past experience to produce future decisions.
- Human-inspired system: This type of AI comprises of cognitive and emotional intelligence. It is able to understand human emotions and put them into consideration in decision making.
- Humanized artificial intelligence: Apart from demonstrating characteristics of cognitive and emotional intelligence, this AI shows characteristics of social intelligence. It is self-conscious and self-aware in interactions.
Types of AI Technology
- Automation: It is what makes a system or process function automatically. Example Robotic Process Automation, programmed to do repeatable tasks that humans normally perform.
- Machine learning: This is the science that involves making a computer work without programming. Three types of machine learning algorithms exist;
- Supervised learning: Data sets are labelled and patterns are detected from labelled data sets. These patterns are then used to label new data sets.
- Unsupervised learning: Data sets are not labelled and are sorted according to similarities and differences that exist between them.
- Reinforcement learning: Data sets are unlabeled but, the AI is given feedback after performing an action or several actions.
- Machine vision: This type of technology allows computers to see by capturing and analyzing visual information through the use of a camera and digital signal processing. The machine vision can be programmed to see through walls.
- Neutral Language Processing (NLP): A computer program processes human language. A good example is spam detection, which looks at the subject line and the text of an email and decides if it is junk. NLP tasks also cuts across; text translation, sentiment analysis and speech recognition.
- Robotics: focuses on the design and manufacturing of robots. These robots are used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform. For example; to move large objects in a factory. Recent developments in robotics uses machine language to build robots that can interact and possess social skills.
- Self-driving cars: This type of AI technology uses a combination of computer vision, image recognition and deep learning to pilot a vehicle, while maintaining a lane and avoiding obstacles.
Applications of Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence technology is applied in many sectors and industries. Here are some examples;
- Education: It is used to access the needs of students and adapt to their needs which in turn helps the students work at their own pace. It is also used to grade students thus, giving their tutors time for themselves. AI are more practical, changing where and how students learn, and can sometimes replace some teachers for better results.
- Manufacturing: this is the major area where robots are incorporated into. Robots are used in industries and companies to lift heavy objects, and sometimes used to replace workforce.
- Law: The process of going through the endless number of documents when looking for a particular file can be very overwhelming for humans. Automating this process efficiently saves time. Question and answer computer assistants are also available. These assistants can sift throw tons of information in seconds and are programmed to answer questions by examining the taxonomy and ontology associated with the database.
- Finance: Artificial intelligence can access personal data to provide financial advice. AI in personal finance applications are; Mint, or Turbo Tax. These software have disrupted financial institutions as they are easy to use and more efficient. IBM Watson is a software than is used in the process of buying a home.
- Healthcare: AI has been used in the healthcare sector to improve patient outcomes while reducing cost. Machine learning is used to make better and faster diagnosis on patients which is important to begin their treatment process. IBM Watson is an example of AI healthcare technology. It understands neutral languages and is able to answer questions that is asked of it. Other AI applications include; Chatbots, which is used to schedule patients’ follow-up appointments, aid patients during the billing process, virtual health assistants also answer questions and provide basic medical feedback.
- Business: robotic processes are used to replace highly repetitive tasks usually carried out by humans. Machine learning and algorithms are used to unwrap information on how to serve customers better. Immediate services are provided to customers by integrating chatbots into websites.
Artificial intelligence is a life changing technology, it saves us time, energy input and is also used to by-pass our excesses as humans. For example; google maps can be used to find a location and also to navigate to it destination using it (google maps), as a guide. It saves you the time you would use to stop and ask people for directions and also reduces your chances of getting lost.