ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY IN NIGERIA
Presently in Nigeria, there is a general feeling of insecurity among the Nigerian populace. The terrorizing effect of the activities of fundamentalist sect, Boko Haram on the economic condition of the northern states of Nigeria has become so devastating that some financial institutions an d other business ventures have closed down in may areas, there by causing relocation of non-indigenes to their own states. In spite of the calamity the group has caused, the government seems not to know how to clip the group’s wings. In this research work, therefore, effort will be made to philosophically and legally appraise the group activities and its implications on Nigerian National integration. We will look at the economic implication of the group in Nigeria economic development also the drive of the boko haram insurgence in Nigeria and possibly suggest solutions that will assist in curtailing their activities in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Research Hypotheses
1.5 Significance of the Study
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Theoretical Framework
1.8 Research Methodology
1.9 Clarification of Concepts
1.10 Organization of Work
2.1 Literature Review
2.2 The Growth of Boko Haram
2.3 Boko Haram’s Ideology
2.4 The Driving Forces of the Boko Haram Insurgency
2.5 The Activities and Attacks of Boko Haram in Nigeria
3.1 Implication of the Boko Haram Insurgency
3.2 The Implication on Economic Development
3.3 The Implication on National Integration
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Nigeria as a nation-state is under a severe internal economic and security threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has greatly affected the nation’s stability, and can be traced to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation (llutoye, 2009).
Boko Haram insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerian in the recent time. These groups have perpetrated several bombing that have killed millions of innocent citizens of this country Nigeria and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth of billions of naira. It is imperative to note that these groups have also engaged in abduction of school girls. This derives from their bid to make people in the north east geo-political zone of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and western education.
Perhaps, no one saw it coming. No one also believed it would happen. It appeared to have taken us unawares even as it is considered very novel and alien to this clime. To may people, it is totally UN African. But surprisingly, what started like a bully at the thresholds of 2009 has grown and assumed a gargantuan dimension, menacingly and uncontrollably tearing the country apart. It has caused us injury and pain. It has brought us hunger. It has spelt and unleashed untold hardship on the people. The economy is bleeding; it has brought division amongst us, fueling animosities amongst adherent of Islamic and Christian religions (Chioma, 2014).
The predominant threat and security challenges in the area emendating from un-abating attacks on Nigerian citizens, individuals, public and government installations, kidnapping and destruction or properties. AU these effects of Boko Haram activities are serious crime against the Nigeria state, which has threatened its national security and economic activities. This has posed a great challenges to the ground strategy for national security of which the primary aim is “to strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her interest and objectives, to contain instability, control crime, quality of life of every citizens, improve the welfare and the elimination of corruption” (Damba-Zau 2007: 51).
Boko Haram activities, has destabilized economic activities, increased crime and destruction of both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be attested in the northern part of the country most especially Maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno State. This situation has made it impossible for the citizens in that part (Northern) of Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is also scaring foreign investors out of the country. Students have been forced to flee their schools, especially after the abduction of over 100 school girls in Chiobok, Borno State. The gravity of the crisis has made some governments to vow never to allow Nigerian students from their state to go to the Northern part of Nigeria for anything. Boko Haram activities also affected the posting of students of southern and eastern extradition on national youth service corps (NYSC) to the north, to the extent that parents are strongly resisting the posting of their children as coppers to the North.
Boko Haram itself is a fatal blow to the noble objective of the scheme as a unifying strategy, the unity of Nigerian is seriously threatened by the Boko Haram insurgence and therefore, Boko Haram fundamentalist sect is considered to be a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigeria mostly on the part of economic activities of the country.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Boko Haram, a diffuse Islamist sect, has attacked Nigeria’s police and military, rival clerics, politicians, schools, religious buildings, public institutions, and civilians with increasing regularity since 2009. Some experts view the group as an armed revolt against government corruption, abusive security forces and widening regional economic disparity in an already impoverished country (Akintunde, 2014).
A Boko Haram activity was described by LIS. Intelligence in November 2011 “as a local salatist group attacking Christians and local police stations with Matchet and poison tipped arrows in Nigeria’s Northern Borno State. According to him:
Boko Haram is a way of thinking, it is politically driven, they are loosely organized grassroots insurrection against not only the Abuja government but the traditional Muslim establishment as well (Campbell, 2011)
After nearly a decade of violence, Nigerian government still does not have an effective strategy for dismantling the group. The terrorist organization preys on the disillusioned. Muslims of the north, who are fed up with corruption and who have few economic opportunities, Nigeria is a heterogeneous country divided by two religious beliefs aside traditional religion. The northern half of the country is almost completely Muslim (50 percent of the total Nigerians population) and the southern half is mostly dominated by Christians (40 percent of the total Nigerians population) originating in the Muslim dominated northern region of the country, the movement other rejected everything deemed western. The activities of the group “Boko Haram” grew its ranks by taking advantages of the widespread anger in the north over the country’s gap. In the north, 72 percent of the population lives below the poverty line, compared to only 22 percent in the southern part (Bartolta, 2011).
The goal of Boko Haram sect is to create an Islamic nation in the twelve northern states of Nigeria, which will eventually spread to the rest of the country. From its inception, Boko Haram sect viewed Nigeria as a state or a country running by non-believers and made the government its main target mostly when it is ruled by a non-believer (non-Muslim) President.
The economic implication of Boko Haram in Nigeria is the major thrust of this thesis. Outright confrontation with police and military officers, violent attacks on the populace, bombing and kidnapping have serious economic implication for Nigeria in the international community. Since the activities of the sect, especially since 2009 have not only constituted a major security threat to the nation, but has also made the country one of the most dangerous place to live in the world. The activities of this sect are capable of disintegrating the country. Thus, the need to find lasting solution to the grievance of Boko Haram is very important.
This project hopes to shed light on why Boko Haram arose as well as its implication for Nigeria in the 21st century. Further, it will look at the effect of their coming into being on democratic consideration. It is hoped that this thesis will contribute to the future work on resolving Nigerian terrorist attack by putting forth a new perspective based on using a holistic perspective.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
By explaining how the sect came into being, and by showing that they posed serious threat to national security, the broad objectives of the study are to examine the activities of the Boko Haram and its economic implication on Nigeria’s development, using Boko Haram terrorism in Nigeria as a cased study. To achieve this, specifically this research work is designed to examine the following:
- To determine if poverty is inducing the Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria.
- To assess the economic implication of Boko Haram insurgence on the nation (Nigeria).
- To determine if the activities of Boko Haram have led to internalization of terrorism in Nigeria.
- To assess their dangerous activities in relation to Nigeria’s National Security.
- To determine if dialogue is a desideratum to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the purpose of this study, these hypotheses were formulated.
- Poverty and unemployment seem to be the driving force of the Boko Haram insurgence
- Boko Haram insurgence has made the international community see Nigeria as a terrorist country.
- Boko Haram insurgence has led to lose of revenue and seeming disunity in Nigeria.
- More fiscal planning are diverted to insecurity at the detriment of other sectors
- Dialogue appears to be desideratum to the Boko Haram menace in Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The problem of Boko Haram and its implication (economic) in Nigeria is central to this research. All individual lives in a world prone to crises. No nation is free from crises. Violence is now endemic in human relations. The global threat of terrorism respect no boundaries or borders. Nigeria is not free from these threats, emanating from Boko Haram activities. It is on this basis that this study is important as it will attempt to answer these questions below. Viz.
- What is the nature of this threat?
- Have the security agencies handled the situation well?
- What have gone wrong with the strategy employed?
- How should government respond to these recent terrorist bombing and abduction?
- Are there lessons to be leant from other countries ways of dealing with threats such as these?
This research work will attempt to answer these questions and build up relevant literatures on Islamist fundamental and contributes to academic, professional and security at large. As it enlightens, develops and inform citizens and government of the reoccurring activities of domestic terrorists and making it possible for policy makers to strategize measures to handle the conflict in Nigeria.
Beyond serving as an addition to already existing literature, it will serve as a practical guide for those in the field of criminal investigation departments, anti-terrorism or counter insurgence.
This study is thereby motivated by strong desire to contribute to the ranging dissolution of Boko Haram and its economic implication on Nigeria’s development.
It is therefore, hoped that this study will be relevant and will be of great benefits to the students and scholars of political science, history, intelligent and security studies and the society at large.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of this research work is quite broad that it encompasses the investigations of “the effect of Boko Haram insurgence on the economic development of Nigeria.
In the limitation of this study, various factors contributed in affecting the researcher’s comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. In producing such a work like this, the problem confronting the researcher is not the scarcity of materials, but its availability. Some of which are bias in their presentation. More so, the research work is contemporary and politically sensitive. The researcher therefore is confronted with the problem of interpretation of the actions Boko Haram and their implications.
Finally, there is the question of time and funds which may serve as impediments to this research. Nevertheless, limitation or limitating factors will be greatly managed to make the research work more objective in its presentation.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
Knowledge does not exist in a vacuum (Ohara, 2003). In every discipline, there is a body of theories that provides the explanation for observable differences between what people feel they want or deserve to what they actually get, the “want get-ration” (Teocrabends 1969) and difference between “expected need satisfactions” and actual need satisfaction (Davies, 1960). When expectation does not meet attainment the people react.
The Boko Haram insurgency is ravaging Nigeria in quite alarming and unprecedented manner. A plethora of theories could be used to explain the violent attacks of Boko Haram some of the theories are the relational vengeance theory, the Islamic theory and the frustration aggression theory (Aloejewa 2012).
Each of these theories provides a persuasive explanation or the Boko Haram insurgency, from different view points out of all these, this research work adopts the aggression frustration theory as the most appropriate theoretical framework to explain the actions of Boko Haram. The theory was propounded and developed by John Dollard and his research associates was initially developed and has been expanded and modified by scholars like Leonard Berlowitz (1962) and Andrey Yales (1962). The theory properly created the analogy used within this research to explain the dynamics in Boko Haram terrorism.
According to John Dollard (1939), he explained that it seems to be that the most common explanation for violent behavior stemmed from inability to fulfill needs. It is based on the general premise that all humans have basic needs which they seek to fulfill and that any blockade to the fulfillment of these needs by individuals or groups elicit violent responses.
Frustration-aggression theory emphasizes that difference between what people feel they want and the discrepancy however, marginal, between what is sought and what they get, the greater the violence reaction. In the face of these frustrated expectations, a group is most vulnerable to embark on violent destructive behavior or to be a ready army to be used to cause crises. Central to this explanation is that aggression is the natural outcome of frustration. In a situation where the legitimate desires of an individual or group is denied either or by the indirect consequence of the way a society is structured, the feeling of frustration can compel such persons or group to express their anger through violence that is directed at those perceived to be responsible for their misfortune or others who are indirectly related to those frustration there expectation their expectations.
Therefore, frustrations aggression provides that aggression is not just undertaking as a natural reaction or instinct as realist and biological theorist assumes but that is the outcome of frustration and that is in a situation where the desire of an individual is denied thereby leading to violence (Akwen, 2011).
As described by John Dollard, that the most common explanation for violence behavior is instability to fulfill needs. According to Bishop Mathew Hassan Kukha, “Boko Haram terrorism is a product of bad government and corruption and therefore, fueled by politics (Mayor. 20011). In Nigeria, approximately 76 percent of northern live on less than one dollar per day. Schools are un-finance and the standard of education is so poor that graduates are often unfit for employment. The worst of it all is the Nigerian government poor responses to the northern desire on economic and security conditions which has fueled resentment, making many young men vulnerable to Boko Haram recruiters. People in the north are not provided the same economic opportunities and benefits that the rest of the country enjoys (ibid). The founder and also the leader of the group, Mohammad Yusuf argued that “Western education or “Boko” had brought nothing but poverty and suffering or Haram” in Islam (Reutrs, 2012).
This is the central government argument that led Robert Gurr’s (1970) relative deprivatum these addressed in saying that:
The greater the discrepancy, however marginal between what is sought and what seems attainable, the greater will be the chance that anger and violence will result (Ted, 1970)
Apart from Nigeria government being corrupt in the year 1999, the police claimed down on Boko Haram members who were ignoring a law requiring motorcyclist to wear helmets. That sparked a furious back lash. Police stations and government offices in Borno State were burned to ground. Hundreds of citizens released in prison break, innocent citizens died on bomb explosion, public and private properties were destroyed.
The last stroke that broke the kernel’s back was the government and its Army reacting with force. The leader of Boko Haram group “Mohammed Yusuf” was captured and shot dead in police custody five days of fighting left more than 800 people dead (Morgan, 2011). In other words, the group remains anti-government and anti-authority, resentful of the decades of corrupt, poor government that have improvise it home region (ibid).
1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
By research methodology, we are referring to the process used to collect information and data for this research work. The method used in the gathering of data is mainly secondary source of data collection.
This research is a topical issue; the secondary method of sourcing was adequate. The findings here presented were based on a desk research with heavy reliance on books; online outfit, articles, online data sources, Journals, seminars publications and reports.
1.9 CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS
According to Janet (2004: 107), definition of terms used in a research is operational. Works are defined as they are used by the researcher. This means that researcher uses certain words in the way they fit to the study, which many be different from the ordinary dictionary meaning. For an operational understanding of the term used within this study, the definitions are as follows:
Boko Haram:- The term Boko Haram is a derivation of Hausa word “Boko” meaning “Animist, western or otherwise non-Islamic education” and the Arabic word “haram” figuratively meaning “Sin” (Literally, Forbidden”) (wikipedia, Boko Haram, 21/03/2013:1).
Boko Haram promotes a version of Islam which makes it “Haram”, or forbidden, for Muslims to take part in any political or social activity associated with western society. This includes voting in elections, wearing shirts and trousers or receiving a secular education. Boko Haram regards the Nigerian state as being run by non-believers, even when the country had a Muslim President. The group’s official name is Jama’atu Atilis Sunna Lidda’awati Wal-Jihad, which is Arabic means “people committed to the Propagation of the prophet’s teachings and jihad” (BBC Africa, 20/05/2014:1).
Insurgence:- This is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority (government of a nation), when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents.
Crime:- On the definitions of crime, the united Nation Research Institution observed that:-
Crime in the sense of branch of a legal prohibition, is a universal concepts, out what actually constitutes a crime and how seriously it should be regarded, varies enormously from crime are not determined by any objective indicator of the degree of injury or damage, but by culture values and power relations (UN Research institute for social development, 1995).
In a strict legal definition however, a crime is a violation of the criminal low, which is subsequently followed by an act harmful not only to some individual, but also to the community or the state. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law (Elizabeth, 2003).
Violence:- The World Health Organization defines violence as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, mal development, or deprivation” but acknowledges that the inclusion of the “the use of power” in its definition expands on the conventional meaning of the word(WHO, 2002).
Sect:- A sect is a subgroup of a religious political or philosophical belief system, usually an off shoot of a larger religious group. Although in past is was mostly used to refer to religious groups, it has since expanded and in modern culture can refer to any organization that breaks away from a larger one to follow a different set of rules and principles. The term is occasionally used in a malicious way to suggest the broken-off group follows a more negative path than the original. It refers to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox or wrong (Wilson, 2008).
Peace:- Generally, peace is defined as the absence of war, conflict, anxiety, suffering and violence and absolute peaceful co-existence. However, peace connotes more than a mere absence of war hostilities because an absence of conflict is inevitable. Therefore, peace could be defined as the political condition that ensures justice and social stability through formal or informal institutions, practices and norms (Howad, 1987).
Security:- Security can be defined as “the total sum of action and measure, including legislative and operational procedures, adopted to ensure peace stability and the general well being of a nation and its citizens (sbinikaiye, 2004).
Security is the freedom from danger or threat to a nation’s ability to protect and develop itself, promote its cherished values and legitimate interest, and enhance the well being of its people. Thus, security is the freedom from or the absence of those tendencies which could undermine internal cohesion and the corporate existence of a nation and its ability to maintain its vital institutions for the promotion of its core values…. As well as freedom from danger to life and property (Oche, 2001).
Insecurity is the extreme opposite of security. Insecurity as an antithesis of security refers to a condition that exists due to lack of effective measure put in place to protect individuals, information and property against hostile persons, influences and actions (Beard 2005).
Terrorism:- Terrorism is perhaps one of the most controversial problematic concept to define in the world to day. This is made more problematic blurred distinction between legitimate act of resistance and criminal act of terrorism. Despite these difficulties, however motivated act of violation perpetrated against civilian targets with the aim of inflicting mass causalities, in stilling fear and a sense of insecurity and affecting a change in the policies and action of the victims (Nolan, 1998).
Islamic Fundamentalism:- Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a returning to the fundamentals of Islam, the Quran and the Summah, it is deemed problematic by those who suggest that Islamic belief requires all Muslims to be fundamentalists (Bernard, 1993). Islamic fundamentalist oppose the infiltration of secular and westernizing influences and seek to institute Islamic law including in Muslim and strict code of behavior.
1.10 ORGANIZATION OF WORK
This research work is grouped into four chapters. Chapter one of this study introduced the problem, statement, objective of study, hypotheses, study significance, scope of the study, theoretical framework, methodology and the clarification of concepts. Chapter two presents a review of literature and relevant research associated with the problem addressed in this study. Chapter three presents the procedures used for data collection and the analysis of the data. Chapter four offers a summary and discussion of the researcher’s findings, implication for practice, and recommendations.
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