IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATION IN IMPLEMENTING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATION IN IMPLEMENTING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study focused on evaluating Teachers‟ Experience and Qualification in the Implementation of Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by four objectives, four research questions and four null hypotheses. Survey research design was adopted. However, the population of the study was 2427 teachers of Social Studies selected from three educational zones of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The sample size used in the study was 332. The study used two sampling techniques namely; proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling. The study also used structured questionnaire titled “researcher made questionnaire Teachers‟ Experience and Qualification in the Implementation of Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum (TEQIJSOSCQ) as data collection instrument. The instrument was duly validated by supervisors‟, language experts and statisticians for content and construct validity. The researcher pilot tested the instrument and 0.799 was realised. The independent samples t-test and ANOVA were used to test the study‟s null hypotheses and arithmetic mean, standard deviation to answer the research questions. Null hypotheses 1 and 2 were retained while null hypotheses 3 and 4 at 0.05 level of significance were rejected. The study discovered among other things that there was no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of respondents in relation to gender on the impact of teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria and that significant differences exist in the mean opinion scores of respondents in relation to qualification on the impact of teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Some of the recommendations include the need for Social Studies teachers to be conversant with the appropriate innovation in the implementation of social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1         Background to the Study

The purpose of education is to develop knowledge, skills and character of students. Thus education is the process of learning and knowing, which is not restricted to schools or textbooks. Education is very important for an individual ‟s life. Education is a major aspect of development of any modern society. The importance of education is evident at every stage, whether at primary, Junior Secondary, Senior Secondary and in Higher institution (Salihu, 2015). No nation can develop without the provision of sound education to its teaming population, Nigeria inclusive. This entails entire educational system and its curriculum, including Social Studies, which led to the first muting of the introduction of Social Studies as a discrete subject and its acceptance by the 1969 National Curriculum conference of 8th -12th September, when social studies was introduced into schools; it was regarded as a combination of History, Geography, Civic etc. This conception gave rise to a lot of questions such as:

 

  1. Why do we want to substitute new name for those subjects with us?

 

  1. Why integrate disciplines which are already well defined without a clear reason? (Charity 2009).

 

To clarify the confusion that set in, a committee on primary Social Studies programme in Nigeria defined Social Studies as “those common learning of man‟s interaction with his social and physical environment… it is not only a study, but a way of life, of how man influences and is influenced by physical, social, political, economic and cultural environment”. Social Studies entails long-life education, stressing on learning and acquiring of positive social economic, political values, attitudes and skills for judicious utilization of human and natural resources (Livingstone in Danladi, 2005; Agenes and Abdusalam, 20014).

 

Around the world there are many similarities and differences among teachers in the way they are trained and certified as professionals to teach in schools. In almost all countries teachers are educated in a university or college. Shiundu (1992) notes that teachers without proper academic and professional qualification fail to do justice to the subject. He further adds that an adequate qualification of the teacher instills self confidence in him and serves as an inspiration to the pupils. An experienced teacher has skills, values and positive attitudes to make the learner be curious, aroused and interested in learning. Therefore the researcher intends to investigate the relationship between teacher related factors that include teacher‟s attitudes and academic qualification in the implementation of social studies curriculum in junior secondary schools.

 

Shiundu and Omulando (1992) argued that to most teachers, implementation is their legitimate role in curriculum development. Their reference to the teacher and curriculum is that after a consensus is reached as to what will go into the curriculum of the educational system the next important step is to avail this curriculum package to the educational system, a process that is known as curriculum implementation. Various personnel are involved, but perhaps the one whose role is most important in seeing that programmes are successfully implemented is the teacher, who organizes the learning environment for the benefit of the pupils who must experience curriculum.

 

Education can be considered as a major tool for the systematic and sustainable human and material development of nations. It is a priority sector in every well- meaning society. It can be considered as a process of acquiring knowledge, skills, attitudes, interests, abilities, competencies and the cultural norms of a society by transmitting them to the coming generations so as to enhance perpetual development of the society. To actualize the above mentioned educational benefits, curriculum is developed for every school subjects for various educational levels. Recognizing the role of teachers in the implementation of any educational policy, Ebiringa (2012) observed that education may unlock the door to modernization but it is the teacher who holds the key. It is the teacher who determines what happens in the classrooms especially in the social studies classroom. Successful implementation of any educational programme can only be assured through teachers who have acquired necessary competencies in terms of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes.

 

Despite the fact that Social Studies has become over willingly accepted into the Nigerian education system, it is yet to be taught and offered at junior secondary school level to its fullest minimum level like other subjects. This has to do with the fact that Social Studies has been wrongly perceived by some administrators at school level, whereby non-Social Studies specialists are given the course to handled. This hinders the proper implementation of Social Studies curriculum at J.S.S level. This point is in line with the perspectives of many social studies experts like Okam and Nedoso (2006), Mezieobi, Fubara and Mezieobi (2008) among others.

 

It is evident to say that Social Studies is all embracing, as such attention need to be given to its curriculum content, who is expected to handle the courses and the recipient of the knowledge i.e. students. Research has shown that, this important subject is suffering in hands of non-social studies specialists. It is against this background that the researcher becomes interested in evaluating the impact of teachers‟ experience and qualification in the implementation of Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum in Kaduna State.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

 

Given the high premium placed on Social Studies in the Nigerian Junior Secondary School curriculum, the need to evaluate the implementation of Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum becomes very significant. What is uncertain is getting the competent/proficient teachers‟ to handle the subject matter (Social Studies) at the junior secondary schools. In Kaduna state, inadequate equipment /materials, willingness to embrace effective use of curriculum, adoption of Social Studies teaching methods and insufficient release of fund from the government to curriculum specialist serves as the obstacles facing its proper implementation.

 

It is evident that teachers‟ experience and qualification have direct correlation with the implementation of J.S.S Social Studies curriculum; hence, experience has shown that, there exist differences in terms of effective implementation of Social Studies curriculum between trained Social Studies teachers and non-Social Studies experts. This could be seen in terms of wider coverage of the contents of curriculum as well as doing justice to the concepts viz-a-vi use of instructional materials during classroom interaction sessions. It is against this background that the researcher becomes interested in determining the impact of teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies Curriculum in Kaduna State, to confirm whether the experience and qualification of social studies teachers influence the level of implementation.

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

 

The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Therefore, the study was guided by the following specific objectives which are. To:

 

  1. examine the impact of respondents‟ gender on teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

 

  1. Determine the impact of school location amongst respondents regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

 

  • Find out the impact of respondents‟ qualifications regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria; and

 

  1. Determine the impact of respondents‟ teaching experience regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

1.4         Research Questions

 

In the light of the stated objectives, the following research questions were formulated:

 

  1. What is the difference in the mean opinion scores of male and female respondents on teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

 

  1. What is the difference in the mean opinion scores of urban and rural respondents on teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

 

  • What is the difference in the mean opinion scores of respondents in respect of their qualification regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria? and

 

  1. What is the difference in the mean opinion scores of respondents in respect of their teaching experience regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

 

1.5         Null Hypotheses

 

The following null hypotheses were postulated for the study and tested at 0.5 level of significance:

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of male and female respondents on teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of urban and rural respondents on teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

 

  • There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of respondents in respect of their qualification regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School

 

Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria; and

 

6

 

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of respondents in respect of their teaching experience regarding teachers‟ experience and qualification in implementing Junior Secondary School Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

1.6         Significance of the Study

 

Man by nature is dynamics so also is the society. This circumstance and other challenges made to look for ways of overcoming these problems which led to the introduction of Social Studies education into the Nigerian school curriculum in 1969 curriculum conference to correct the ill of the society and produce a better, sound, vibrant, confident and disciplined Nigerians.

 

The study will aid government and educational planners by feeding there with information thereby, highlighting areas of weaknesses with records to teachers, attitude and glorification in the implementation of Social Studies to curriculum. This will pare wag in prospering solution to the problems at hand and plan ahead.

 

The study will as well be of importance to curriculum planners and developers by regrouping them with relevant information which could be used in developing curriculum that cater for the need and aspiration of our communities as well as that of the larger society.

 

To the curriculum development bodies like National Educational Research and Development Centre (NERDC), the study will assist them to identify areas of weaknesses which adequate attention and proper review which will assist in effective curriculum change.

 

Similarly, the study will also help Social Studies teachers‟ by exposing area of weaknesses as well as revealing practicable workable solution which will make them change thereby improving themselves and their students. It is also hoped that this study will be of great relevance to stockholders i.e (parents/ community members) by equipping them with need of being involved in curriculum planning implementation.

 

It is also hoped that the study will serve as reference material to students undertaking research at various level in tertiary institutions. In addition to the above, the study will encourage other researchers to take up from where this study stopped and expand further frontiers.

 

1.7         Scope of the Study

 

This study evaluated teachers‟ experience and qualification in the implementation of J.S.S Social Studies curriculum in Kaduna State. The Scope of this study includes the three (3) educational zones in Kaduna State. However, the study selected six schools from each of the three educational zones namely:

 

  1. Zaria Educational Zone;

 

  1. Zonkwa educational Zone; and

 

  • Giwa educational Zone.

IMPACT OF TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCE AND QUALIFICATION IN IMPLEMENTING JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SOCIAL STUDIES CURRICULUM IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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