ROLE OF MOTIVATION IN IMPROVING EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY OF WORKFORCE
This research work is about motivation as a means of improving efficiency and productivity in workforce. The purpose of this work is to ascertain whether there is adequate motivation in 7up bottling Company and Ministry of Works to include higher productivity and better performance.
Information was gathered through both primary and secondary sources. For primary data, the researcher made use of questionnaire carefully designed administered to respondents and secondary data information was gathered from the libraries and other research units. All the information gathered from both sources were later arranged and presented in tabular form and analysed using percentage.
The researcher also made effective use of inferential analysis in which chi-square x2 was used to test the hypothesis.
1.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
The word motivation is continuously used in every organization, both profit and non profit oriented organization apply the principle of the basic record in order to achieve the overall corporate objective of their organizations.
No organization will be interested in recruiting new staffs, training and developing them yearly only to lose them to other organization that manage and motivates them more. The more an organization motivates, the more productive and efficient they becomes. Hence, an organization that motivates. Stands the better changes of survival, growth and productivity.
These give birth to an interesting topic known as the role of motivation in improving efficiency and productivity in workforce. This is because their behaviour and attitude can be either beneficial or detriment to an organization. The need for management is to study and know which course to follow in every organization.
Motivation if properly used enhances the output efficiently and productivity.
Increasing their morale, makes them more effectives and efficient in accomplishing the organization objectives while any negative force demoralise them all their productivity initiative and all their detriment of the organization for they must know and identify the individual needs, wants, target, and goals and to find favourable solution to them.
Salary alone dose not fully motivate people, other factors like recognition, commission, accomplishment, prestige, fringe benefit as provision of car, accommodation, enjoyable working conditions, bonus and overtime being paid and job security. Other incentives that tends to reduce the person problem and uplift them to a higher status in the society.
In the Nigeria context, one notice that salary is the only and mostly motivating factors used by most organizations. According to Berelon and Starner (1964:240) it is a force or act of stimulating people to work efficiently and produce result that are beneficial and direct the person towards the goal of satisfying the need.
Therefore, motivation is the resultant of a dissatisfied situation. Motivation can also be seen as a means of giving incentives to workers to improves the spirit of work for better production. The needs for motivation as a means of improving efficiency and productivity of workforce is as old as creation. there has been traces of motivation as a stimulating factors for better performance in all human activities.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Motivation is an important element to the productivity of any organization. Be it private or public sector. Motivation has been identified as a major factor that determines staff input in their working place. It is also a well known fact that what motivates an individual might not be what will motivate the other.
In view of this, it is imperatives to take an in sight into finding out those factors that makes a worker to perform well both in the private and public sectors. Using 7 UP bottling company and ministry of works Owerri as a case in point. In the case of the ministry, the researcher found out that
1) There are some tools or equipment that have worn-out in their offices. And in this case it can enhance productivity in the workforce
2) The dilapidation of their offices like broken chairs, tables, windows, doors and roofs, this also affects the productivity in the sense that the environment is not conducive.
3) The salary increment, promotion, recognition and other incentive also motivate workers in a workforce. where by salary are not paid and other incentives are neglected, it demoralise motivation and affects productivity.
4) The relationship between the top management and subordinates can also effects productivity. If the subordinate are given sense of belonging it will motivate them the more in jobs.
While in 7UP bottling company “private sector” you will find out that:
1) Lack of increment on salary can enhance productivity in workforce
2) Worn-out equipment or machines de-motivation workers and resulting in low productivity.
3) Lack of promotion, recognition and commission also enhance productivity of workforce in a company.
4) Provision of company’s car, accommodation and other little incentives which motivates workers can also enhance productivity in workforce.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Organisation believes that the more they motivates, the more efficient and productive they becomes. Under this condition, this study is aimed at
1) To understand the motivational factors that can induce or motivate staff to improve their efficiency and productivity in workforce.
2) To find alternative motivational factors when necessary that can motivate employees.
3) To recommend to organization the factors that will boost workers to improve efficiency and productivity.
4) To educate the management on the benefits of employees specialist who can fully interpret the motivational process.
5) To highlight the importance of evaluating job performance before offering rewards
1.4 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
This study will find some useful information regarding the motivational problems of an organization both private and public and their effects and enhance those factors that will leads to improve the efficiency and productivity in workforce.
Information gained from this study could be used by an organization in their planning and execution of appropriate motivational package. It will help the organization to known the right motivational techniques to us in satisfying their staffs to achieve their aim.
Also, it will help the organization to know the staffs needs and satisfy them. Although human wants are numerous, but at least to an extent so as to improve their efficiency and productivity.
The study also, shall be useful to the researcher, scholars and other researcher who are interested in carryout research work based on the area of motivation in an organization.
Finally, It will also help the government to defeat the cause of backwardness of some of our organization and industries which also dwindles our economy and the way some of this problem can be solved.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
There are some question that will be based as a guide for the purpose of this research.
1) In an organization, are staffs satisfied with their job
2) Dose this motivational factors made an impact on efficiency and productivity?
3) Are they motivated?
4) Are there adequate motivational factors in the organization?
5) Should the organization improve on their motivation factors.
In order to facilitate investigation in a study of this nature, it is useful and necessary to formulate hypothesis which are designed to provide the useful guide all through the work and the drawing of reasonable conclusion and also to make a meaningful workable solution to the problem.
HO: The promotion system does not in any way inspire the staffs to improve efficiency and productivity.
HI: The promotion system inspires the staffs to improve efficiency and productivity.
HO: Staffs are not satisfied with their job?
HI: Staffs are satisfied with job.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The issue of low productivity in Nigeria organization have been a matter of serious concern in both public and private sector, which is the question facing Nigeria economy.
This study has been limited to 7UP bottling company and ministry of works Owerri and has not cross the borders of the other firms as to allow for more detailed gathering of information on motivational factors in an organization and how it affects the efficiency and productivity of workforce.
For proper understanding of the study, the research study would have covered outside 7UP bottling company and mini stry of works. This would been done to ensure better knowledge on the research study. But after much consideration on various variables like time factors, financial constraint and other implications and so on, the research decided to concentrate on ministry of works and 7UP bottling company.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Every organization has some problems militating against its progress. This study is not an exception. Collecting information required for the research was not an easy task. This is dues to suspicious.
The non- challant attitude towards respondent. Some respondent were very un-cooperate and unwilling to help. While some fear to disclosed information.
The researcher being a student was faced with a lot of problem while conducting the research work.
The problem include financial constraint, time constraint and other academic work which surrounded the student during the time she was conducting her research.
The financial constraint pines on the transportation fares, the cost of typing and distributing of questionnaire. because of financial handicap, there was no extensive details like distributing questionnaires to other district and section of the organization.
The time constraint rest on the fact that the research was faced with other academic work surrounding her and her exams during the research work. This regrettable robbed the research of the opportunity for much needs guides from other organizations.
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
In the case of going through this project, some key wards and phrase which were very relevant to the project topic were encountered for the purpose of this study.
The following terms are defined:
1. MOTIVATION: This meeting social and psychological need of the employees fulfilment of organization goals.
2. PRODUCTIVITY: This is the rate between output and all the resources used in production. It is the speed rate at which something is produced.
3. EFFICIENCY: The quality of doing something well with no waste of time or money within a given period.
4. MANAGEMENT: These are people that sees to the smooth running of an organization in order to achieve the organizational goals.
5. HYGIENE FACTOR: This is an element of workers motivation concerned with the environment or context of the job.
6. INCENTIVES: This is the payment made to employees over and above their basic pay in other to encourage them to increase productivity.
7. NEED: This refers to a felt depreciation of a goal base satisfaction.
8. EFFECTIVE: To produce a result that is wanted or intended producing a successful result.
9. LABOUR: People whose work are available
10. GOALS: This refers to doing something in order to achieve it.
11. MOTIVATED: This is the driving force both within and external to the individual that impels to action which influences the behaviour.
12. MOTIVE: Reasons which makes someone to do something. It is the inner state that makes in attaining goals.
13. RESPONSE: A reaction to something that has happened or been said.
14. IDENTIFY: To recognize somebody or something and be able to say what they are.
15. CORDIAL: This tells us how pleasant and friendly people are in their environment.
16. DEVOTION: This is the action of giving time and energy in achieving something.
17. TEAM SPIRIT: This means working in unison.
18. ACCOMPLISHMENT: These are things that supports other things to happen.
19. STIMULATING: This is the act of making more alert or active to encourage people.
20. DRIVE: The term drive refers to energy movement activity, the force that pushes one to perform an action.
21. AWARD: This comes in form of price, payment or compensation on a job well done.
22. WORKFORCE: This is the total number of workers in an organisation.
23. FRINGE BENEFITS: It is an extra benefit given especially to employees in addition to salary or wages.
24. PRESTIGE: This is respect based on good reputation or past achievement.
25. MORALE: This is the amount of confidence, enthusiasms, determination a person or group of persons has at a particular point in time.
26. JOB ENRICHMENT: This is the process of vertically increasing the responsibility of a job by the addition of motivation.