GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON GROUND TO HELP WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN NIGERIA
This study investigated on the government entrepreneurial policies that facilitate women entrepreneurship and how effective these policies are on organizations. It focused on the empirical study of creating knowledge about women entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. It studied the government efforts towards resolving the problems of women entrepreneurship: lack of finance, managerial and technological knowhow, education and training, lack of experienced expatriate and local completion, inadequate infrastructure leading to high cost and finally high burden of taxation. The major findings of this research include; Government womenentrepreneurial development policies have immensely improved entrepreneurial organizations, these organizations in turn have contributed a lot towards economic and national development especially in the aspect of reducing unemployment and generating income. The most important incentive given to women entrepreneurs by government is finance. The women entrepreneurs still encounter other problems in areas of technical and managerial known how, employee training and development, poor supply of infrastructure. Based on these findings, the researcher strongly recommends that women entrepreneurial organizations should be included in training and development of their managers and other staff to acquire managerial and technical know how to enable them cope with the challenges of modern management. For the maintenance of human variable, there is need for human resource improvement. I humbly recommend to the Government to draft programmes like workshops, seminars, and career development programme which should have incentives attached to them. I humbly recommend to the Government to compel the environment to be supportive to women entrepreneurs e.g. finance houses and banks should grant them loans. I humbly recommend to Government to equally give them grants from time to time, reduce the burden of tax and implement already made policies for the women entrepreneurs. I equally recommend to Government to provide basic infrastructure like electricity, pipe borne water, boreholes, access roads, suitable spaces, market places for these products especially in the rural areas to reduce the cost encountered by the womenentrepreneurs. The researcher therefore concludes, that as the “foundation for growth and national development”,womenentrepreneurs are indispensable and must be given paramount attention by thegovernment.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
- BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Despite the fact that entrepreneurship has been acknowledged as the backbone of many economies in both developed and developing countries, gender inequality still exists in this sector. A significant proportion of women is still marginalised and on the receiving end of discrimination. In more favourable circumstances, women can run businesses, support their families and community and contribute to economic growth. The lack of women’s involvement in entrepreneurship is a loss to the nation andsociety.
In spite of the acknowledged contribution of women entrepreneurs in both developed and developing countries, women the world over still experience many challenges, and in this regard Nigeria is no exception. Women make up 51.83% of the population in Nigeria, but are underrepresented in business for reasons of custom, culture, belief, and religion. In Nigerian society, women are regarded as well suited to domestic activities such as raising children, looking after domestic animals, food production, and cooking. Typically, women are considered to be too weak to carry out entrepreneurial activities (Musomandera et al., 2015: 27). Nevertheless, numbers of women in Nigeria have broken this barrier and started their own enterprises. In Nigeria, the political and economic capital of Nigeria, women entrepreneurs represent 43.2% of all entrepreneurial activities (International Finance Corporation [IFC] , 2008:30; Vis, 2012:41; Musomanderaet al., 2015). In rural areas, however, female entrepreneurs are comparatively less active in business than their male counterparts (Coldham,2013:2).
The aim of this study is to identify the challenges that women entrepreneurs face in Nigeria. It comprises five chapters. Chapter One covers the introduction, background, and research problem. It also formulates the research question and research objective(s), while delineating the scope and significance of the study. Chapter Two offers a literature review, while Chapter Three covers research design and methodology. Chapter Four presents and discusses the study’s findings. Lastly, Chapter Five offers ac onclusion and recommendations.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is to investigate:
- Those government positive interventions that can develop the entrepreneurs to attain their peak in corporateperformance.
- The major problems facing women entrepreneurship development and the diverse ways in which government aims at resolving theseproblems.
- The various ways of assessing co-operate performance either by the entrepreneur herself or by external bodies to ascertain the extent to whichthe objectives of the entrepreneur has beenmet.
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between government women entrepreneurial development strategies and the performance of entrepreneurs.
Hypothesis2: there is no significant relationship between managerial problems and womenentrepreneurialperformance.
Hypothesis 3: There is significant relationship between womenentrepreneurial financial problems and women entrepreneurialperformance.
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
This study is important because it seeks to identify the government policies on women entrepreneurship in Nigeria, by allowing the voice of women entrepreneurs to be heard. The findings and recommendations will help women entrepreneurs in Nigeria, the government of Nigeria, the Nigeria Private Sector Federation, the Nigeria Chamber of Women Entrepreneurs, and other stakeholders, to introduce measures to promote gender equality in entrepreneurship and resolve the negative issues faced by women entrepreneur in Nigeria. The results of the study will also add to the existing body of knowledge on gendered entrepreneurship, serving as reference to researchers with similar research interests in Nigeria and the rest of the world, particularly in developing countries.
1.5 MOTIVATION AND FORMAT FOR THESTUDY
The author who incidentally is an entrepreneur, was motivated to carry out this study as a result of increased interest in area of women entrepreneurship. What motivated me to carry out this research was to find out if there was any “prospect” at all in women entrepreneurship. She wishes to find out to what extent the government has gone in ensuring that rapidly springing up school leavers, graduates and prospective entrepreneurs find women entrepreneurship appealing. She wishes to encourage the unemployed to prayerfully and carefully venture into a business.
Furthermore, I want to find out if women entrepreneurial organizations are effective, whether credit facilities are available to them, if there are provisions for basic infrastructure, if the business climate is stable and if the markets can accommodate their product as well.
This research work is divided into five chapters, chapter one focuses on the background and general introduction to the topic, chapter two focuses on the review of relevant concept to the topic. Chapter three treats the general methodology of the
study and chapter four deals with data presentation, analysis and interpretation. Chapter five deals on summary of findings and recommendations.
- LIMITATIONS OF THESTUDY
There were some impediments that limited this study. Time and finance were major setbacks. Transportation demanded so much money and updates from the internet as well. The researcher could not reach all the womenentrepreneurs in all the industries. Random samples of the womenentrepreneurs were taken from selected firms in Anambra state. The researcher was unable to collect the entire questionnaire issued out. The time to move from one library to the other, type and distribute questionnaire posed a constraint because of engagement at my workplace. Despite all these, the researcher was able to carry out thestudy.
- DEFINITION OFTERMS
- ORGANIZATION : According to Onwuchekwa (2000), Organization is the association of two or more individuals working cooperatively together for a common purpose under authority andleadership.
- MANAGEMENT: According to Stoner (1982), management is the process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling efforts of organizational members and of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational objectives.
- ENTREPRENEUR: An entrepreneur is an individual, or a group of individuals, who undertake the responsibility of making innovations in the economy or carries out a neworganization.
- GOVERNMENT : Government is part of the environment of business and within a focal country which exercises legal and regulatory control over all business organization, as well as initiates the major strategies for the attainment of national development objectives. It could also be seen as a person or group of persons into whose hands the state has placed for the time being, functions of politicalcontrol.
- POLICIES: Policies are guides and directives that are formulated to shape the thinking, actions and decisions of a people in a givenarea.
- BUSINESS: Business is the planned activities of individuals or groups of people aimed at producing and selling, for a profit, the goods and services that satisfy the need ofconsumers.
- ENVIRONMENT: The environment of an organization include those individuals, organizations, government agencies, suppliers, distributors, press, etc. who in one way or the other help an organization to carry out its productive activities but are not subject to the control of thatorganization.
- TECHNOLOGY: Technology is the state of the art of doing things in a society in order to achieve goals.
- PRIVATIZATION: Privatization is the process of change of ownership, either in whole or in part from the government or state to the privatesector.
- CORPORATE EFFECTIVENESS: Corporate effectiveness is the same as organizational worth, which is the extent to which an organization as a social system, given certain resources and means, fulfils its objectives and without placing undue strain upon its members.
GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON GROUND TO HELP WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN NIGERIA