PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA CYSTS IN DOG FAECES AND WATER SOURCES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA CYSTS IN DOG FAECES AND WATER SOURCES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

Abstract:

Giardiasis is a major cause of diarrhoea in both humans and animals. This study determined the prevalence of Giardia cysts in dog faeces and water sources in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Four hundred and two (402) dog faecal samples and 120 water source samples were collected and examined for Giardia cysts using zinc sulphate flotation technique. Of the 402 dog faecal samples examined, 70 (17.4%) were positive forGiardia cysts. The highest prevalence ofGiardia cysts was15 (3.7%) in Tudun-wada, followed by Kwangila 14(3.5%), Samaru 13(3.2%), Zaria city 11(2.7%), Dan-magaji 10 (2.5%) and Sabo 7(1.7%). There was no statistical association (P=0.480) betweenGiardiacysts in dogs and districts sampled. There were other parasite eggs/oocysts seen among the 402 dog faeces examined. These were eggs of Taenia28(7.0%), Ancylostoma20(5.0%), Toxocara20(5.0%), Dipylidium7(1.7%),Capillaria 6(1.5%) andIsospora13(3.2%). Of a total of 364 dogs that had diarrhoea, 64(17.6%) were positive for Giardia cysts. Giardia cystswere higher in male dogs 42 (18.9%)than in females 28(15.6%). Higherprevalence of Giardiacysts was observed in puppies (<6months) 37(18.1%) than adults (>6months) 33(16.7%).Higherprevalence of Giardiacysts was observed in cross/exotic breeds 19(20.9%) as compared to local breeds 51(16.4%). There was no statistical association between the prevalence of Giardia cysts and dogs with diarrhoea (P=0.782), sex (P=0.37), age (P=0.697) and breed (P=0.322). There was ahigher prevalence63(15.7%) of Giardia cysts in strayed dogs than in confined dogs 7(14.6%). However, there was significant association (P=0.01) between Giardia cysts and straying of dogs. Two (1.7%) out of the 120 water source samples examined were positive for Giardia cysts. The positive samples werefrom Samaru,1 (5.0%) and Sabo, 1 (5.0%). No Giardia cysts were identified indrinking water samples collected from Kwangila, Tudunwada, Danmagaji and Zaria city. All the positive samples were from streamwater 2(6.7%). There was no Giardia cyst in samples collected from tap, well and borehole.The viii overall prevalence of other parasite eggs/oocysts in all water sourceswas 7(5.8%)with Ancylostoma eggs having the higher prevalence 5(4.2%), followed by Isosporaoocysts 2(1.7%). The total number of respondents who were the dog owners was 402. The prevalence of Giardia cysts was highest 2(20.0%) among those respondents that had greater than 3 dogs in households as compared to 65 (18.7%) and 3(6.7%) among 1 and 2 dogs per household respectively. Of the 68(16.9%) pet dogs, 148(36.8%) security, 139(34.6%) for food and 47(11.7%) for hunting, the prevalence of Giardia cysts were 9(13.2%), 23(15.5%), 24(17.3%) and 14(29.8%) respectively. Thirty five (17.5%) out of the 200(49.8%) dogs that received veterinary care were positive for Giardia cysts. Pet (OR: 0.36; 95% C I on OR< 0.14 < 0.92) and security (OR: 0.43; 95% C I on OR < 0.20 < 0.93) use of the dogs were the identified risk factors while type of feed, number of dogs per household and veterinary care were not risk factors (P>0.05). Straying of dogs should be regulated by owners to avoid indiscriminate faecal contamination and water sourced from streams, wells and boreholes should be filtered and boiled properly before drinking.This study established the prevalence of Giardia cysts in dog faeces and water sources in Zaria.

PREVALENCE OF GIARDIA CYSTS IN DOG FAECES AND WATER SOURCES IN ZARIA, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.

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