PHARMACOGNOSTIC, NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON THE AERIAL PART OF DAUCUS CAROTA L. (APIACEAE)

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PHARMACOGNOSTIC, NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON THE AERIAL PART OF DAUCUS CAROTA L. (APIACEAE)

Abstract:

Daucus carota (L.) commonly known as carrot belongs to the family of Apiaceae. The aerial part is used as component of livestock feed in some part of Northern Nigeriawithout any scientific evidence ofsafety. The present study was carried out to establish its pharmacognostic, nutritional potentials and safety to justify the use of D. carota aerial part. The pharmacognostic parameters, nutritional, acute and subchronic toxicity weredeterminedby standard methods.The gross alpha, beta activities and the naturally occurring radioactive materials werecarried out using spectrometry procedures.Theresults of the microscopy revealedwavy epidermal cells and several diacytic stomata on the lower and upper surfaces. The chemo-microscopy revealed presence of starch, tannins, lignins, cellulose, starch grains, aleurones grains, mucilage, suberin and cutins. The quantitative leaf microscopy of the lower epidermal layer showed stomatal number (14.80±0.97), stomatal index (31.22±3.09%) and palisade ratio (6.20±0.37). The upper epidermal layer revealed stomatal number (10.60±0.87), stomatal index (32.55±1.25%), vein islet number (12.80±1.98) and veinlet termination (31.80±2.33). The physicochemical evaluation revealed moisture content (5.56%), alcohol extractive value (15.60%), water extractive value (21.80%), total ash (11.60%), acid insoluble ash (1.00%) and water soluble ash (5.67%).The proximate analysis revealed crude protein(14.59%), lipid (10.37%), crude fibre (9.07%) and carbohydrate (51.81%). The acute oral toxicity of the extracts on the wistar rats showed no sign of toxicity and mortality at 5000 mg/kg. The effect of n-hexane and methanol extracts on body weight of the wistar rats showed significant decreased (p≤0.05) at week 2. The ethylacetate extract showed no significance(p≥0.05) difference. The hematological effects of the extracts showed significant (p≤0.05) decreased in red blood cell in all the treated doses. The hexane and ethylacetate extract showed that MCV and MCH werealso significant (p≤0.05). The D.carota aerial part extractsshowed significant decreased(p≤0.05)on ALP (IU/L) while the ALT (IU/L), AST (IU/L), TP (IU/L) and ALB (G/DL) hadno significant differences(p≥0.05).The effects of oral administration of n-hexane extract on bicarbonate showed statistically significant at the treated groups and sodium was also significant at 1500mg/kg (p≤0.05). The ethylacetate extract was not significant(p≥0.05) the kidney function parameters. The methanol extract showed that sodium and bicarbonate was significant (p≤0.05)at 500mg/kg and 1500mg/kg.The histopathological effects of the extracts showed moderate and slight tubular necrosis in the kidneyat 500 mg/kg, while the liver had slight hepatic necrosis with moderate lymphocyte hyperplasia. The dose group at 1000mg/kg and 1500 mg/kg showed moderate lymphocyte hyperplasia in the kidney and the liverrevealed vascular congestion with kupfer cell hyperplasia. The effects of the extracts on the stomach revealed normal epithelium cells with slight necrosis when compared with the control group. The gross alpha (6.36±0.25Bq/g) and beta activity (2.37±0.32Bq/g) concentration were above the acceptable limits. Thenaturally occurring radioactive materials level were 40K (389.52±134.52Bq/kg), 226Ra (29.13±10.66Bq/kg) and 232Th (84.85±64.85Bq/kg). The findings from the study suggested that D. carota aerial part are not safe for man and livestock and that consumption of the aerial part is capable of causing liver, kidney tissue injury and other possible toxic related diseases.

PHARMACOGNOSTIC, NUTRITIONAL AND TOXICITY STUDIES ON THE AERIAL PART OF DAUCUS CAROTA L. (APIACEAE)

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