PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON THE LEAF OF Senna singueana (Delile) Lock(FABACEAE)

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PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON THE LEAF OF Senna singueana (Delile) Lock(FABACEAE)

Abstract:

Senna singueana (Dell) Fabacea is a shrub widely used traditionally to treat numerous disease conditions such as sexually transmitted diseases (STD), intestinal complications as a laxative, antimalaria,antimicrobialand antioxidant effects. The pharmacognostic standardization of the leaf of the plant was assessed to determine its organoleptic features, microscopical, and chemo-microscopical characters as well as physico-chemical parameters, phytochemical and anti-microbial activity. The study was aimed at evaluating the pharmacognostic, phytochemical constituents and the anti-microbial activity of leaf extracts. The investigations started with the qualitative microscopic and macroscopic evaluation of the leaf material and establishment of its quality parameters, including physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation. The powdered leaf was then extracted successively using soxhlet apparatus in n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol to obtain a brownish hexane Extract (HE), brownish ethylacetate extract (EE) and brownish gummy methanol extract (ME). The extracts were subjected to phytochemical analysis and then, evaluated for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography with the aim of isolating a bioactive phytoconstituent. The leaf was found to be elliptical with entire margins with an obtuse apex, its 2.52 cm long and 1.65 cm wide, it has smooth texturewith a characteristic taste and distinct odour. Microscopically the leaf has numerous paracytic stomata on the lower surface. It has a lot of unicellular trichomes.Chemo-microscopical analysis revealed the presence of aleurone grains, starch grains, tannins and cutins surrounded by layers of cellulose and lignified walls. Physico-chemical parameters such as moisture content (6.03%), total ash content (7.33%), water soluble ash content (4.5%), and acid insoluble ash content (1.5%). Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of many therapeutically important classes of phytoconstituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic, sterols, triterpenoids, saponins and carbohydrates with varied presence in the three different extracts which was further confirmed by the use of specific spray reagents on thin layer chromatography (TLC). EE gave the highest zone of inhibition for E.coli(27mm) while ME gave 21mm and HE 17 mm at the same (10 mg/mL) onthe tested Gram positive organisms. EE also gave the highest zone of inhibition of 22mm followed by ME(20mm) and the hexane extract (18 mm) for Staphylococcus aureus. From the hexane extract, column and thin layer chromatography led to the isolation and identification of a triterpenoid. The structure of this compound couldn‟t be determined as the quantity was so minute. The study would therefore serve as a useful tool for the standardization of the leaves of Senna singueana ensuring and validating its identity, purity and quality. Also validates its use in treatment of skin infections.

PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES ON THE LEAF OF Senna singueana (Delile) Lock(FABACEAE)

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