ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF CRUDE METHANOL EXTRACT OF DONNETIA TRIPETALA G. BAKER FRUITS WITH ITS VARIOUS CHEMICAL FRACTIONS IN MICE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH HELIGMOSOMOIDES BAKERI

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ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF CRUDE METHANOL EXTRACT OF DONNETIA TRIPETALA G. BAKER FRUITS WITH ITS VARIOUS CHEMICAL FRACTIONS IN MICE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH HELIGMOSOMOIDES BAKERI

Abstract:

The effects of in vitro and in vivo anthelmintic activity of crude methanol extract (CME), hexane extract (HE), ethylacetate extract (EAE), butanol extract (BT) and aqueous methanol extract (AME) of Donnettia tripetala fruits on mice experimentally infected with Heligmosomoides bakeri were evaluated. The fruits were washed dried, pounded and the powder was extracted with methanol in a soxhlet apparatus. Fifty grams of the crude methanol extract (CME) was partitioned with hexane (HE), ethylacetate (EAE) and butanol (BT). The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and acute toxicity test (LD50). The in vitro anthelmintic studies involved the evaluation of egg hatch inhibition and larvicidal activities of the extracts. Different concentrations (0.07, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ml) of the CME, HE, EAE, BT and AME were prepared in distilled water. Two hundred microlitres of each concentration were incubated with the eggs and larvae of H. bakeri contained in 0.2 ml solution in 96 well microtiter plates and incubated at room temperature for 48 and 24 hours, respectively. Distilled water (0.2ml) and albendazole (0.07, 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, 1.25 and 2.5 mg/ml) were used as untreated and treated controls, respectively. In the in vivo trial, 85 mice infected with H. bakeri were randomly allocated into 17 groups of 5 mice each. Groups 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-15 were treated with CME, HE, EAE, BT and AME, respectively at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Groups 16 and 17 were treated with albendazole (10 mg/kg) once and distilled water (5 ml/kg) respectively, and served as treated and untreated controls. All treatments were administered orally on the 16th, 17th and 18th day post infection. Anthelmintic activity was assessed by comparing the faecal egg count reduction rates and the worms recovered from the treated groups to the non- treated group. The extraction with methanol yielded 0.07 % of the powder. Furthermore, fifty grams of the crude methanol extract yielded 24.87 g (49.7%) of HE, 2.11 g (4.2%) of EAE, 3.69 g (7.4%) of BT and 16.80 g (3.4%) of AME on partitioning. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, tannins and alkaloids in the CME, EAE, BT and AME. The HE however did not contain saponins. Acute toxicity study of the CME in mice showed that the extract was relatively non-toxic and safe at a dose of ≤ 5000 mg/kg. At 2.5 mg/ml the CME, EAE, AME and BT inhibited the hatching of H. bakeri eggs by 93.5, 92.4, 87.9 and 52.4%, respectively. Similarly, CME, EAE, AME and BT caused death of the larve of H. bakeri by 100, 92.6, 85.1 and 77.8%, respectively. However, HE did not produce significant in-vitro anthelmintic activity when compared with distilled water (untreated control). In the in vivo anthelmintic trial, the CME, HE, AME, BT and EAE at a dose of 800 mg/kg reduce fecal egg count by 100, 99, 98, 80 and 65%. Similarly, CME, EAE, AME, BT and HE caused deparasitization of 93, 93, 88, 88 and 82%, respectively, in mice infected with H. bakeri which is significant (p<0.05). The study concluded that D. tripetala fruit is safe and non toxic when administered acutely and posses anthelmintic activity

ANTHELMINTIC EFFICACY OF CRUDE METHANOL EXTRACT OF DONNETIA TRIPETALA G. BAKER FRUITS WITH ITS VARIOUS CHEMICAL FRACTIONS IN MICE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH HELIGMOSOMOIDES BAKERI

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