SURVEY FOR AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES, POULTRY – WILD BIRD INTERACTIONS, BIOSECURITY AND HUSBANDRY PRACTICES IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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SURVEY FOR AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES, POULTRY – WILD BIRD INTERACTIONS, BIOSECURITY AND HUSBANDRY PRACTICES IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

Abstract:

Avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are important poultry diseases in Nigeria affecting commercial poultry productivity and might be the cause of low commercial poultry production in Kogi State. The study was carried out in 5 phases to survey AI and ND viruses in poultry and wild birds, poultry – wild bird interactions, biosecurity and husbandry practices in poultry production in twelve Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Kogi State, Nigeria. The first phase surveyed AI and ND viruses antibodies in poultry where a total of 779 sera were analyzed for AI (H5) antibodies using haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test which gave an overall seroprevalence of 4.2% with mean antibody titre of 8.42 ± 0.254log2. Using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an overall seroprevalence of AI nucleoprotein (NP) antibodies in poultry was 30.8% with mean antibody titre of 16.588 ± 0.882 EU. Similarly, 779 poultry sera were analyzed by HI test for ND antibodies which gave an overall seroprevalence of 75.9% with mean antibody titre of 6.77 ± 0.141 log2. Using ELISA, an overall seroprevalence of ND in poultry was 68.1% with mean antibody titre of 34.487 ± 1.444 EU. The second phase also surveyed AI and ND viruses’ antibodies in wild birds where sera of 50 species of free flying wild birds from 8 families were analyzed by HI test for AI (H5) antibodies but the results were negative. However, using ELISA an overall AI (NP) seroprevalence of 4.5% and mean antibody titre of 6.61 ± 0.78 EU were obtained in wild birds. The overall seroprevalence of ND antibodies in wild birds using HI test was 29.2% with mean antibody titre of 2.69 ± 0.51 log2. Using ELISA, the overall seroprevalence of ND in wild birds was 27.1% with mean antibody titre of 11.06 ± 1.28 EU. The third phase was a molecular survey for AI viruses in poultry and wild birds where a total of 810 cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested using reverse transcription-polymerase vii chain reaction (RT-PCR) with set of primers targeting the AI matrix proteins. All the tested samples were negative for AI viruses. The fourth phase was a molecular survey for ND viruses in poultry and wild birds where a total of 810 cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested using RT-PCR with set of primers targeting the avian paramyxovirus-1 (APMV-1) matrix protein with 60.5% being positive for the viruses. Groups were compared with each other using χ2 and the relative risk of infection of ND viruses between groups were calculated as odd ratio. The χ2 values of backyard poultry sampling unit against other sampling units (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.28 – 1.76), LGAs without surveyed wild bird against LGAs with surveyed wild birds (OR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.40 – 2.46) and poultry species against wild bird species (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.25 – 3.77) were not significant but that of contiguous areas A against contiguous areas B were significant (χ2 =6.59, p≤ 0.01, OR = 4.10 at 95% CI = 1.34 – 12.28). The fifth phase assessed poultry – wild bird interactions, biosecurity and husbandry practices in poultry production in Kogi State. Questionnaire was administered to a total of 108 respondents by interview, 77.8% of the respondents affirmed to wild birds scavenging for food around their farms, households and LBMs; 66.7% of the respondents kept poultry on free range; 63.9% of the respondents had trees where wild birds could roost around their farms, households or LBMs; 8.3% of the respondents had water body/fish pond around their farms or households; 85.2% of the respondents would dispose litter and dead birds in refuse dumps, while 50.0% of the poultry around major rivers or wetlands. From this work it was concluded that there were AI (H5) and AI (NP) antibodies in poultry. There were no AI (H5) antibodies but there were AI (NP) antibodies in wild birds. There were antibodies to ND viruses in poultry and wild birds in the study area. There were no AI viruses but there were ND viruses in poultry and wild birds in the study area. Poor biosecurity viii and management practices in poultry production encouraged direct and indirect contact of poultry and wild birds in the study area. It is recommended that further surveillance should be carried out for AIVs and to characterize the APMV-1 circulating in poultry and wild birds in Kogi State. Poultry farmers should avoid or dislodge existent risk factors that encourage poultry – wild bird interactions around their farms and households as well as undertake biosecurity in poultry production

SURVEY FOR AVIAN INFLUENZA AND NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUSES, POULTRY – WILD BIRD INTERACTIONS, BIOSECURITY AND HUSBANDRY PRACTICES IN POULTRY PRODUCTION IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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