THE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGE AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE ADULT RESPONSES TO CHILDREN’S SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN

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THE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGE AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE ADULT RESPONSES TO CHILDREN’S SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN

Abstract

Objective: To examine the sensitivity to change and responsiveness of the Adult Responses to Children’s Symptoms (ARCS) among parents of youth with chronic pain.

Methods: Participants included 330 youth (89 children aged 7-11 years, 241 children aged 12-17 years) and their parents who participated in randomized controlled trials of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for chronic pain. Child pain and disability, parental emotional functioning, and parental responses to child pain were assessed at baseline and posttreatment.

Results: The Protect and Monitor scales of the ARCS were sensitive to change following intervention for both developmental groups, with clinically meaningful reductions in these behaviors, thereby demonstrating responsiveness. Among the adolescent sample, greater change on some ARCS scales was associated with better parental emotional functioning and lower child pain at posttreatment.

Conclusions: Findings support the sensitivity to change and responsiveness of the Protect and Monitor scales among parents of youth with chronic pain.

Keywords: ARCS; adolescents; children; chronic pain; monitor; parental responses; pediatric pain; protect..

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page- – – – – – – – – i
Approval page – – – – – – – -ii
Dedication – – – – – – – – -iii
Acknowledgement – – – – – – – -iv
Abstract – – – – – – – – – -v
Table of content – – – – – – – -vi

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION – – – – – – – -1
1.0 Background of the study – – – – -1
1.1 Statement of the problem – – – – -5
1.2 Purpose of the study – – – – – -6
1.3 Significance of the study – – – – -8
1.4 Research questions – – – – – -9
1.5 Scope of the study – – – – – – -10

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW – – – – – – -11

CHAPTER THREE

Research methodology – – – – – – -39
Design of study – – – – – – – -40

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation, analysis and interpretation of data – -48

CHAPTER FIVE

Summary of findings – – – – – – -60
Conclusion – – – – – – – – -61
Recommendations – – – – – – – -62
Suggestions for further research – – – – -64
References – – – – – – – – -65
Appendix I – – – – — – – – -68
Questionnaire. – – – – – – – -69

THE SENSITIVITY TO CHANGE AND RESPONSIVENESS OF THE ADULT RESPONSES TO CHILDREN’S SYMPTOMS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH CHRONIC PAIN

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