THE IMPACT OF AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

  • : Ms Word Format
  • : 73 Pages
  • : ₦3000
  • : 1-5 Chapters
  •  
  • Click to DOWNLOAD Materials

THE IMPACT OF AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL(AMAC) ABUJA."

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1  Background to the Study

In recent times, there has been an increasing concern for effectiveness and efficiency in the learning process. Anwukah (2000), opined that if any success must be achieved in attaining effective students learning outcomes. The teacher must know the instructional materials that are available for teaching a particular subject or topic and be able to utilize them to attain the expected students learning outcomes. Onyemerekeya (2003) defined students learning outcomes as statements which describes in a relatively specific manner, what the student should be able to achieve, produce or the characteristics the students should possess after completing the unit of a course of instruction. The classroom teacher must recognize that his task is not merely to teach but to stimulate learning. Teaching therefore is a process of guiding and directing the activities of the students in order to produce effective learning. In effect, the instructional procedure that will produce the desired learning outcomes must be adopted.

Onyenerekeya (2003) stated that instructional procedure is the main body of the lesson where detail of the content is recorded. It provides in steps the details of what is to be taught, it explains what the teacher should do and the activities of the students. At the appropriate stage of the development of the lesson, allowances are made for the use of relevant instructional materials. According to Eya and Ibekwe (2009), no matter how good a teacher may be judged to be, he needs some resources to aid him in his teaching.

Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons which enhance effective learning outcomes. They are educational resources used to improve students’ knowledge, abilities and skills. It is also used to promote assimilation of information and to contribute to the overall development and up bring of learners in their chosen academic endeavours. Onyeyemezi (2008) defined instructional materials as resources or teaching material which a teacher utilizes in the course of presenting a lesson in order to make the content of the lesson understood and also arouse the interest of the learners. This implies that availability and the use of instructional materials is necessary if effective teaching and learning must be achieved. When instructional materials are available, properly selected and used, they help him/her recall things that would have been easily forgotten. The use of instructional materials therefore becomes very crucial in improving the overall quality of the learning experiences of students (Oya and Onuora 2004). In the context of these studies, instructional materials refer the materials or devices used the teacher to augment students’ level of understanding the lesson.

Anyanwu (2003) stated “instead of the teachers” explaining  Chemistry concepts and how to solve problems, they should provide the students with appropriate materials and encourage them to make observations from the hypothesis guiding students to discover new ideas by asking leading question. Instructional materials available for instruction in  Chemistry are subdivided into four major categories, namely; visual aids, audio aids, Audio visual and printed materials.

Visual aids are those instructional aids which are used in the classroom to encourage students learning process and enhance effective learning outcomes. According to Burton (2003) “visual aids are those sensory object or images which initiate or stimulate and support learning. Visual aids make an issue or lesson more clearer or easier to understand, more real, more accurate and more active and interesting. In visual aids/materials learning is by engagement of the sense of sight or by visual senses. The examples of visual aids used in  Chemistry are pictures, maps, graphs, diagrams, atlas, painting, videos, slides, real objects, models, graphics charts which are used in teaching classification, explanation of concepts or ideas.

Audio Aids/materials deals with the sense of hearing only and listening. According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple, intelligence, student learns in variety of ways, including listening. Some students are better auditory learners than others and may see more academic improvement when using i the classroom. Using audio materials in the classroom is one of the ways of achieving effective student’s learning outcomes. The learners relying solely on speech through direct instruction include listening activities around music, noises and interactive listening assignments. The examples of Audio Aids are audio recording, radio records, tape recordings (of events, stories and song), and music and so on. Using Audio Aids in the teaching learning process leads to effective students learning outcome.

Printed materials these are reading materials used in  Chemistry teaching and learning processes which includes encyclopedias for reference work, textbooks for reliable information, magazines, journals, newspapers, pamphlets, novels and poems. The conventional values associated with reading materials such as textbooks in teaching and learning have increasingly led to the delusion of people into the thinking that “textbooks  and other printed materials are indispensable in teaching and learning” (Ikwumelu, 2002) and that they will probably continue to be a standard organizational device for (any) programme and for effective learning. The effective use of the available instructional materials enhances effective students learning outcomes and absence of instructional materials is likely to pose problem on learning outcomes.

It is about the availability of instructional materials in  Chemistry that the study is undertaken to determine the influence of available instructional materials on students learning outcomes in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

1.2  Statement of the Problem 

The act of teaching is fundamentally concern with the passing of ideas, skills and attitude from the instructor (teacher) to the learners. In Nigeria for example experience has shown that spoken words alone in communication of ideas are grossly ineffective and inefficient in producing desired learning outcomes. The widely opinion is that the success of any educational institutions and systems depends largely on the availability of relevant educational materials that will enhance the effective students learning outcomes.

Looking at the instructional process one easily calls to mind a famous ancient Chinese adage which say “I hear, I forget, I see I remember, I do I understand” Eneh 2004. This adage emphasizes the need for availability of instructional materials in teaching learning process.

Presently in Nigerian schools, especially considering its compulsory status of the basic education or foundational level, there is adequate provision of instructional materials for effective utilization by the teachers. Most of the lessons presented by the instructor (teachers) sometime does not really enhance effective learning outcome due to inadequacy of instructional materials. Instructional materials bridge the gap between the teacher and the learners and reduces the chalk-talk syndrome that involves only the learner’s sense of hearing which makes him loose interest after sometimes. Effort has been made by the government and private sectors on the provision of instructional materials to schools, though it is not adequate and sometimes the available one are not effectively used by t he teachers.

Every year, when the results of public examination are released in Senior Secondary school, there has always been failure in  Chemistry. The reason for this could be ascribed to the fact that there are topics in  Chemistry that pose serious problem of comprehension to students. These topics cannot be taught effectively without the use of relevant instructional materials to make the learning real.

 

1.3  Purpose of the Study 

The study is poised to determine the influence of the instructional materials on student learning outcomes in  Chemistry in Senior Secondary school in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

Specifically, the study aims at the following objectives:

  1. To examine the influence of Visual Aids on students learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.
  2. To determine the influence of Audio Aids on students learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.
  3. To examine the influence of Audio Visual Aids on students learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.
  4. To ascertain the influence of printed materials on students learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools, Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

1.4  Significance of the Study

The study would be of benefit to the teachers, State Secondary Education Board, parents, the students and the general public at large. The study would be of benefit to the teachers in that they will know that the availability of instructional materials as a guide during lesson delivery enhances effective learning outcomes. The study would be of benefit to the State Secondary Education Board as it will provide adequate information on the need for provision of instructional materials to schools and also provide the principals  the opportunity   to improve in school supervision so as to ensure quality teaching and learning in schools.

The availability of instructional materials will help the parents as well as the public in determining the choice of schools for their children, this is because their wards will be motivated when they are exposed to instructional materials that will lead to quality learning and improved performance. The study would be of benefit to the students’ researchers as it will provide valid working documents for reference materials empirical studies on other areas not covered by this study.

 

1.5  Research Questions

In order to achieve the objectives of this study, the following research questions were formulated to guide the investigation.

  1. How the availability of visual aids influence students’ learning outcomes in does Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area?
  2. To what does the availability of Audio visual aids influences students’ learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local government Area?
  3. How does the availability of Audio visual Aids influence student learning outcomes in Chemistry in Junior  Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area
  4. To what extent does the availability of printed materials influence students’ learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area?

 1.6  Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were raised to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant influence of availability of visual aids and students’ learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

  1. There is no significant influence of availability of Audio Aids and students’ learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

  1. There is no significant influence of availability of Audio Visual Aids and student’s learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

  1. There is no significant influence of availability of printed materials and students’ learning outcomes in Chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area.

 

1.7  Assumptions of the study

The following assumptions were made about the study:

  1. Student’s learn better with the use of Instructional Materials.
  2. The use of visual aids can arouse the interest of the interest of the learner.
  3. Availability of Audio visual material can enhance effective learning outcomes.
  4. Adequacy of printed materials can promote effective learning outcomes.

 1.8  Delimitation of the Study    

The study is delimitated to the availability of instructional materials and students’ learning outcomes in  Chemistry in Senior Secondary School in Abuja Manicipal area council Local Government Area. Specifically, the instructional materials is delimited to Visual Aids, Audio Aids, Audio Visual Aids and Printed materials were selected for the investigation. This implies that the scope of the study exclude Senior Secondary level of education.

1.9  Definition of terms 

The following terms are operationally discussed in the context of the study:

Instructional Materials: This refers to the objects or a device which used by the teacher to make learning more understandable and effective.

 Learning Outcomes: These are statements that describe significant and essential learning that learners have achieved and can reliably demonstrate at the end of a course or program.

Availability of Instructional Materials: This explains the state of adequacy and the types of instructional materials that are accessible by the teacher for teaching and learning processes likely to bring about effective learning outcomes.

THE IMPACT OF AUDIO-VISUAL INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL(AMAC) ABUJA."

 

Sharing is caring!

Leave a Reply

shares