THE FACTORS AFFECTING DILAPIDATED BUILDING IN RURAL AREA (CASE STUDY OKEAGBE AKOKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT)
It is evident that in life, shelter remains the second basic necessity of human needs after food, and as such, many individuals act desperately to have their own personal dwelling. Therefore, the need to erect solid and functional building to avoid unexpected dilapidation is very essential. Building Dilapidation occur as a result of the following factors, factors such as; Poor workmanship, bad design, use of sub-standard building materials, foundation failure, faulty construction, extra-ordinary loads, among other factors such as negligence, design flaws, ageing, material fatigue, extreme operational and environmental conditions, accidents, terrorist attacks and natural hazards. Therefore, there is need to eradicate building dilapidation in Nigeria, most especially, the study area which is Okeagbe Akoko LGA, Ondo State. In view of the aforementioned therefore, this research work shall look into the problems that result into dilapidation of building in Nigeria whether design or construction or other related problems. However, having identified the problems of building dilapidation in the country with special focus on Okeagbe Akoko LGA-Island, possible solution were thereafter proffered to solving the identified problems
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The demand for and provision of housing is as old as the history of man. Due to the harsh weather condition, wild animals, need for security and privacy, it became necessary for man to provide shelter for himself and members of his family. Though, the type of houses built in those historical times, served its primary purpose of shelter but lacked the modern amenities, as a result of underdevelopment in the society (i.e. society with no industry). Construction processes were limited to the locally available materials, labour and technology. However, with civilization and technological advancement, man was exposed to a new life (i.e. access to modern amenities).
Therefore, in recent times, there are various types of houses as a result of the numerous types of designs by the architects and the houses not only serve the primary purpose of shelter alone, but also have the modern amenities. There are different types of materials, plants and equipments produced to suit the modern constructions. There are also professionals like Architects, Builders, Quantity surveyors, Engineers, among others, trained in their respective field for proper execution of projects. Also, we have the skilled and unskilled labours, who contribute grossly towards the execution of a project. All these are as a result of civilization and technological advancement which have impacted the construction industry. Hence, the construction industry is regarded as one of the largest industries in the world, as it contains the highest number of people, ranging from the clients, professionals, skilled labours, unskilled labours and suppliers of different building materials etc.
Despite all these, dilapidated building projects still litters our society, causing problems like security threats, promotion of illegal activities, unemployment, waste of human resources, poor landscaping, etc. Therefore, I will start by defining the dilapidation of building project, as an act of giving up or stopping a building project with no intention of returning to it. Nobody initiates a building project for dilapidation, because an uncompleted building project is always a source of sorrow to its owner, an unfulfilled hope and aspiration – a failure to achieve a purpose (Olateju, 1997).
Unfortunately in Nigeria, when projects are dilapidated there are no conscious efforts to ensure completion, instead, new projects are embarked upon, putting money, materials, time and effort to waste, and also, causing problem to the nation as whole.
In Nigeria, the situation of dilapidated projects is further compounded by the continuous award of new contracts which eventually suffers the same fate (Frisch, 1996).
We must really lay emphasis on the issue of dilapidation of building projects, because, it creates a lot of problems for everyone, both within and outside the construction industry and even on the economy as a whole. Likewise, the resources required to execute the projects, which include: labour, equipment, time, material and money, are wasted and the accommodation problem remains unsolved.
Therefore, this dissertation attempts to examine the factors affecting dilapidated building in rural area (Case study okeagbe akoko local government).
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In Nigeria today, the landscape is littered with dilapidated building projects. Therefore, the research work focuses critically into the causes and effects of dilapidated building projects which have littered the Nigerian landscape. Every nation aspiring to attain development must utilize its resources effectively; develop its industrial base, energy sectors among other things (United Nation, 2006). Unfortunately, Nigeria has suffered a set-back in following these principles to development.
Every year, government announces a huge amount of money to be spent on capital projects, only for all to be put to waste as a result of corruption (e.g. embezzlement), leaving the projects dilapidated. Also, both the public and the private sectors experience the dilapidation of building projects which makes it pronounced, in the harsh economic climate, in developing countries like Nigeria. As a result of the involvement of the private sector, this has threatened job opportunities, rendering our economic development effort to suffer continuous set-back.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research work is to examine the The factors affecting dilapidated building in rural area (Case study okeagbe akoko local government). In order to achieve this aim, the following objectives are pursued;
- To examine the causes of dilapidated building projects in Nigeria
- To examine the efforts of government, professionals and all other stakeholders in eradicating building dilapidation in Nigeria
- To proffer suitable solution to the problems associated with building defects in the study area
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the problems stated, the following are the questions for the study which will serve as guide as the study is meant to solve the problem stated above.
- What are the causes of building dilapidation in Nigeria?
- Has government and professionals made any effort to curb the dilapidation of building in Nigeria?
- What measures could be taken to curb the aforementioned problem?
1.5 FORMULATION OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis is a tentative answer to a research problem. It is a proposition which can be put to test in order to determine its validity, also hypothesis is very brief, clear definite statement which are empirically verifiable, it may be positive (H1) or negative (H0).
Therefore, the hypotheses for this research study is stated as follows;
- H0 – Government and professionals have made efforts to eradicate dilapidation of buildings in rural areas in Nigeria.
H1 – Government and professionals have made no efforts to eradicate dilapidation of buildings in rural areas in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Every good research work must have an element of importance to some particular set of people, so as to make the purpose of the research work meaningful. Therefore, this research work is of great importance to the following group of people;
The developers will benefit from this research work as it will enable them to know and identify the various causes of building dilapidation, the defect, effect and problems of building dilapidation and how it can be solved, they will also have an understanding on the importance of following the building code and the professionals that are involve in property development, so as to give their job to the right ones.
The building professionals will be able to improve on their lapses by giving the builder the orientation on the types of material to be use for construction and stop the use of sub-standard materials, that will eventually lead to building dilapidation, also they will improve their efforts to site supervision so as to know the quacks on site and the types and quality of materials that are used on sites. The government will definitely benefit greatly from this research if recommendations given thereafter is put in place, in terms of regulating the cost of materials both local and international and implement their rule and laws guiding constructing industry. Also, researchers and students writing on related topics or field of works can use this as their reference.
Finally, the tenants and individuals planning to embark on building construction will be able to know the sub-standard building materials if they go through this research work. They shall be able to identify building with defect and avoid such building for living in order not to waste their lives and property. Therefore, this research work is of great importance to the society as a whole.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will focus on the examination of theThe factors affecting dilapidated building in rural area. The study was carried out in okeagbe akoko local government. The study will focus on building dilapidation problems caused by design, construction, other causes, as well as its effect on property investment. Research questions will be administered through questionnaires to the professional team in the building industry, government parastatals and the real estate developers in with a view to achieving the research objective..
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of this research work, few problems surfaced and they are as follows;
- Time Factor: The research work was combine with school activities and as such, slowed down the study a bit since the study area happens to be a bit far from the school environment.
- Non-Challant attitude of Respondents: Some respondents took time before they can fill the questionnaire not considering the distance between the school environment and the research area..
THE FACTORS AFFECTING DILAPIDATED BUILDING IN RURAL AREA (CASE STUDY OKEAGBE AKOKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT)