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  • Background of the Study

That advertising is an effective tool in the communication of a product’s uniqueness and comparative benefits to target audiences and potential customers goes without saying. This, perhaps, explains the rationale for the huge investment manufacturers put into advertising, which they consider an essential element and tool in business growth. Osunbiyi (1999) asserts that advertising is a very strong component of business in any society, possessing communication, persuasive and pervasive power. Though primarily, designed by firms to create awareness about goods and services, it also encourages the development of new and better products, thereby giving consumers wider varieties of choices.  According to Cohen (1988), advertising is a business activity that employs creative techniques to design persuasive communication in mass media that promote ideas, goods, and services in a manner consistent with the achievement of the advertiser‘s objective, the delivery of consumer satisfaction and the development of social and economic welfare. Taking a look at Cohen’s definition, it can be inferred that advertising satisfies three basic objectives namely: to increase sales of the firms, to guarantee consumers a great deal of service and finally to ensure the social and economic welfare of society.

Advertising is seen in various ways. One encounters them mostly while watching television, reading magazines and newspapers, surfing the internet, and on the radio or even simply while walking down the street (Sharma and Sharma 2009). Advertising is most effective on products that have intrinsic qualities. These qualities are not known at the time of purchase and it takes one to discover this upon using the product. Also, when there is a substantial chance of differentiating a product, it is best to advertise the product. Again, when there is a strong emotional purchasing motive such as to protect health or enhance social position, it pays to advertise such a product. These conditions make the demand for the product more inelastic. The more emotions consumer attach to a product, the more they tend to be insensitive to its price. This is of importance to firms as they can earn high sales in pricing their products (Borden, 1942).

According to Doyle (1968), advertising on food, clothing, durables and household items tends not to yield higher sales. Consumers are not affected much by the publicity on such items as they consume such products on a daily basis. The higher the consumption of a product, the less effective is advertising on them. Advertising thus tends to have a less marginal effect on such items. Advertising has a long term dynamic effect on consumers’ purchase and sales of products. A firm’s reason for advertising is usually to bring to the fore the existence of the product and their benefits with a view to generate profit from the exposure of such goods or services.

In looking at the advertisements of cosmetics through the use of models, it is important to look at what is considered as cosmetics within the scope of this study. Cosmetic is any substance used to clean, improve or change the complexion, skin, hair, nails or teeth. Cosmetic includes beauty preparations (make-up, perfume, skin cream, nail polish) and grooming aids (soap, shampoo, and shaving cream, deodorant).  The use of cosmetics by consumers is something that has been in existence for a long time and has only been known to improve in quality and packaging as the sophistication of the consumers increased.

The cosmetics industry all over the world accounts for some of the highest contributors to nations’ GDP, thus it is an industry that cannot be overlooked.  According to the 2015 U.S Statistica, the US cosmetic market revenue is expected to exceed $62 billion in 2016, while the UK cosmetic market employs more than one million people and worth 17 billion Pounds Stirling. The potential of advertising in Nigeria is equally massive. With a population of over 170 million people, expected to become the third largest population in the world by 2050, and with a current GDP growth rate of 8% annually, Nigeria ranks among the fastest growing markets in Africa, faster than Brazil and Russia, according to a report by the IMF.

When it comes to the beauty and wellness industry, this market is expected to double over the next two decades with an estimated annual growth rate ranging from 5% to double digits. A report by Euromonitor in 2012 projected the Nigeria beauty and wellness market to value about $3 billion in 2017. Given the enormous value of the cosmetic market across the globe, it becomes strategic and critical for entrepreneur in the business to employ advertising strategies that will deliver maximum benefits for their brands. One of those strategies is the use of celebrities and models. The endorsement of products and services in advertising has become as important and integral aspect of modern day advertisement, thus companies now rely on the use of models and celebrities in advertising their products.

Today, celebrities and models are constantly used in advertising to endorse and promote brands in the market place with a view to generate massive sales and publicity for the brand.

Products from the following companies were examined in this research work, namely: Bm Pro, Sleek Cosmetic Products, Iman Cosmetics, Zaron Cosmetics and Tara Cosmetics.

Statement of the Problem

Sundarsan (2007) asserts that the role of advertising is essentially to fulfil the traditional desire of firms to reach the ever-increasing population so that their products may receive optimum exposure. However, the specific role advertising plays in brand patronage, increased sales, revenue and profits for local firms and has continued to generate fierce debates among advertisers, practitioners and marketing communications scholars..

For example, most increase in product sales, especially, cosmetics have been attributed to other factors like taste, product effectiveness, long term use of a product and user’ unwillingness to switch products. This, then, questions the rationale for the continued use of models by advertisers of cosmetics, especially given the dangers associated with celebrity endorsements in the events of negative publicity or even scandals.

This study therefore seeks to find out the extent to which the use of models in   advertising influences the buying behaviour of women in Efurun metropolis towards cosmetic products. The question therefore is: what values do models bring into the patronage of cosmetic products among women in Efurun metropolis?

1.3  Objectives of the Study

The objectives of this study were to:

(1)   examine whether models used in advertising influence the purchase of cosmetic products.

(2)   find out what age is mostly  influenced by advertisements showing models.

(3)   examine buying  motives of women who patronise cosmetics  products.

1.4  Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

(1)   do models used in advertising influence the purchase of cosmetic products?

(2)   what age is mostly influenced by advertisements showing models in cosmetics advertisements?

(3)   what are the buying motives of women who patronise cosmetic products?


  • Significance of the Study

This study brings to our knowledge the degree of influence other product promotion activities and advertising exerts on billboard advertising.

The research was upon in order to embarked on its research project in order to assess the impact of billboard advertising on MTN subscribers in Efurun Local Government Area.

The study will also serve as a guide to manufacturers and advertisers in their day-to-day via the billboard advertising. On the other hand, this study serve as literature/good feasibility study for prospective investors in Billboard Advertising sub-sectors.

  • Scope of the Study
  • Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this research, some challenges were encountered. First, the researcher has limited fund to carryout the research effectively. However, this situation handed through financial and from family friends.

Secondly, time was a challenges due to a cumbersome academic time table. This was handled through effective time management by the researcher.

Finally, the respondents posed a serious challenges to this work. Most of them were reluctant and unwilling to respond to the questionnaires. The researcher was able to tackle this by telling them that the information gathered was strictly for academic purposes.


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