PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILER BIRDS TO ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH ALOE VERA AND NEEM LEAVE EXTRACTS

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PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILER BIRDS TO ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH ALOE VERA AND NEEM LEAVE EXTRACTS

ABSTRACT

Two hundred and forty 14-day old broiler birds were used in a study conducted to investigate the physiological response of boiler birds to oral supplementation with aloe vera gel and neem leaf extracts. In experiment one, one hundred and twenty 14- day old broilers were used to assess the physiological response of the broiler birds to oral supplementation with alovera gel extract, while in experiment two, one hundred and twenty 14- day old broilers were used to  assess the physiological response of the broiler birds to oral supplementation with neem leaf extract. The birds of both sexes were randomly allotted into five treatment groups of 24 birds each in a completely randomized design (CRD) in both experiments. Treatments 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 received ordinary water, Vitaltye, 10, 20, and 30% of each of the two extracts, respectively. Results obtained in experiment one showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences in final body weight, feed conversion ratio, average cost/kg gain and mortality rate.  Birds on T4(20%AVGE) had the lowest feed conversion ratio(3.09) and lower average cost of feed per kg gain(N308.67) than others with feed conversion ratio [ T1(3.36), T2(3.46),T3(3.21) and T5(3.18), and average cost of feed per kg gain [T1((N336.33), T2(N345.67), T5(N317.66), respectively. There were significant (p<0.05)differences among treatments  in packed cell volume, red blood cells, hetrophil, lymphocyte, moncyte, eosnoohil, and basophil.  There were also   significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in crude protein, ether extract  and  nitrogen free ether retained; significant differences existed among treatments in total protein, albumin globulin, glucose, creatine, cholesterol and calcium. Live body weight, dressed weight (%LW), head, gizzard, empty gizzard, shank, heart, liver, kidney, abdominal fat, lungs, and large intestine were significantly affected by treatments. However, there were no significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake, daily water intake, protein efficiency ratio, white blood cell, dry matter retained, dressed weight(kg), and  small intestines. Birds that received neem leaf extract (T4 and T5) showed progressive increase in final body weight (3.42kg and 3.70kg, respectively) compared to the control (3.14kg) and T2 [(vitalyte) (3.39kg)] .  Birds on T5(30%NLE) had the lowest feed conversion ratio(2.85) and lower average cost of feed per kg gain(N284.67) than others which had  feed conversion ratio of 3.48 (T1), 3.21 (T2), 3.29 (T3) and 3.15 (T4), and average cost of feed per kg gain as follows:T1(N347.67), T2(321.00), and  T4(N315.33). There were significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in packed cell volume, red blood cells, hetrophil, lymphocyte, moncyte, eosnoohil, and basophil. Significant differences (p<0.05) also existed between treatments in the apparent retentions of crude protein, ether extract and nitrogen free ether, and in total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol and calcium. There were also significant (p<0.05)differences among treatments  in live  weight, dressed weight(%LW), head, gizzard, empty gizzard, shank, heart, liver, kidney, abdominal fat, lungs, large intestine and  small intestine. However, there were no significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in average daily feed intake, total water intake, dry matter retained, and serum creatine. Results showed that the levels of aloe vera gel and neem leaf extracts used in the present study enhanced the growth performance of broiler birds, especially at 20% and 30% inclusions.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification-   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Acknowledgement      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Table of contents        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

List of Tables  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ix

Abstract          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           xi

CHAPTER ONE:INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2 Statement of problem        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3 Justification of the study. –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.4. Objectives of the study    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

 CHAPTER TWO: LITERATUER REVIEW

2.1 Broiler breeders and their management    –           –           –           –           –           –           5

2.2 Nutrient requirement of poultry    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

2.3 Feed intake of broiler birds.          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           12

2.4 Energy requirement of chickens   –           –           —          –           –           –           –           12

2.5 Protein and amino acid requirements of chickens            –           –           –           –           13

2.6 Response trends of chickens to differing feed energy and protein levels –           –           16

2.7 Need of vitamin supplements       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           19

2.7.1 Role of vitamin  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           20

2.8 Vitamin requirements of broilers  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           21

2.9 Water-related factors in broiler production          –           –           –           –           –           27

2.10 Poultry diseases: causes, symptoms and treatment        –           –           –           –           31

2.11 Alternative ingredients in poultry feed  –           –           –           –           –           –           34

2.12 Use of herbs in poultry production.        –           –           –           –           –           –           35

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1 Location and Duration of the Study         –           –           –           –           –           –           36

3.2 Preparation of Extracts     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

3.2.1 Preparation of aloe vera gel Extract      –           –           –           –           –           –           36

3.2.2 Preparation of neem leaf extract            –           –           –           –           –           –           36

 

3.3 Experiment 1: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral

supplementation with aloe vera gel extract    –           –           –           –           –           37

 

3.3.1 Experimental birds and management    –           –           –           –           –           –           37

 

3.3.2 Haematology and serum analyses          –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.3.3 Apparent nutrient retention determination        –           –           –           –           –           38

3.3.4 Carcass and organ evaluation    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           38

3.4 Experiment 2: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral

supplementation with neem leaf extract    –           –           –           –           –           –           39

 

3.4.1 Experimental birds and management    –           –           –           –           –           –           39

3.5 Parameters measured and parameters determined            –           –           –           –           39

3.6 Experimental design         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           39

 CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Experiment 1:  Physiological response of broiler birds to

oral supplementation with aloe vera gel extract   –           –           –           –           –           41

 

4.1.1 Proximate composition of aloe vera gel extract            –           –           –           –           –           41

4.1.2 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on growth performance

of starter broiler birds     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

 

4.1.3 Effect of aqueous aloe vera gel extract on haematological indices

of starter broiler birds       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           42

 

4.1.4 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extracts on growth performance

of finisher broiler birds:     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           43

4.1.5 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extracts on apparent nutrient

retention finisher broiler birds     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           45

4.1.6  Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on Serum biochemistry

indices of finisher broiler birds.            –           –           –           –           –           –           47

4.1.7a Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and organ weights

of broiler finishers        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

4.1.7b Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass

and relative organ weights of broiler finishers –           –           –           –           –           51

4.2 Experiment 2:  Physiological response of broiler birds to oral

supplementation with neem leaf extracts. –           –           –           –           –           –           53

 

4.2.1 Proximate composition of neem leaf extracts   –           –           –           –           –           53

4.2.2 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of starter broiler birds    –           54

4.2.3 Effect of neem leaf extracts on haematological indices of starter broiler birds            –           55

4.2.4 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of finisher broiler birds:-56

4.2.5 Effects of neem leaf extract on apparent nutrient retention finisher broiler birds.-      58

4.2.6    Effects of neem leaf extract on Serum biochemistry indices of finisher

broiler birds.  –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

4.2.7a Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and organ weights of broiler finishers         61

4.2.7b Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and relative organ weights of

broiler finishers           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           65

4.3 Experiment 1:  Physiological response of broiler birds to oral

supplementation with aloe vera gel extract –        –           –           –           –           –           69

 

4.3.1 Proximate composition of aloe vera gel extract.           –           –           –           –           69

4.3.2 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extract on growth performance

of starter broiler birds     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           70

 

4.3.3 Effect of aqueous aloe vera gel extract on haematological indices

of starter broiler birds      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           70

4.3.4 Effect of aqueous alovera gel extracts on growth performance            –           –           –           71

of finisher broiler birds    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           72

4.3.5 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extracts on apparent nutrient

retention finisher broiler birds     –           –           –           –           –           –           –          73

4.3.6    Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on Serum biochemistry

indices of finisher        broiler birds.  —          –           –           –           –           –           74

4.3.7 Effects of aqueous alovera gel extract on carcass and (relative)

organ weights of broiler finishers            –           –           –           –           –           –           75

4.4 Experiment 2: Physiological response of broiler birds to oral supplementation

with neem leaf extract       –           –           –           —          –           —          –           –           75

4.4.1 Proximate composition of neem leaf extracts   –           –           –           –           –           75

4.4.2 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of starter broiler birds    –           76

4.4.3 Effect of neem leaf extracts on haematological indices of starter broiler birds.-          77

4.4.4 Effect of neem leaf extracts on growth performance of finisher broiler birds: 77

4.4.5 Effects of neem leaf extract on apparent nutrient retention finisher broiler birds.-        77

4.4.6    Effects of neem leaf extract on Serum biochemistry indices of finisher broiler birds.78

4.4.7 Effects of neem leaf extracts on carcass and (relative) organ

weights of broiler finishers.-       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           -80

  CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     Summary         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           82

5.2 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION           –           –           –           –           83

  REFERENCES        –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              84

APPENDIX

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Poultry is on the fastest means to achieving appreciable improvement in the nutritional standard of the populace because of its short generation interval, quick turnover rate and relatively low capital investment (Smith, 2001; Ani and Okeke, 2011)

Nutrition is the most important consideration in any livestock enterprise. Its survival is dependent on the availability of feedstuffs, which are mainly components of human food. The unavailability of grains and the high cost of imported ingredients have made the price of commercial animal feed to increase over 300%. These problems remain the most important constraints to the expansion of commercial poultry production in Nigeria.

 

The high cost of conventional feedstuff has already sent a lot of livestock farmers out of business, thus leading to reduction in overall animal protein production and availability for humans dietary’s need. The provision of feed alone has been reported to account for 60-80% of total cost of livestock production in developing countries alone (Igboeli, 2000; Esonu, 2006).  In view of this, there is increased interest by poultry farmers on the search for non conventional feed ingredients that could be cheaper such as leaf and seed meals of ethno medicinal plants (Okoli et al., 2001, 2002). The use of various plant extracts in broiler production has been documented (Essien et al; 2007; Nworgu et al 2007; Galib and Noor, 2010). One way is to look for alternative source of feed supplement that is not only cheap and could boost the growth of chickens but organic and readily available.

In an effort to develop new feedstuff for animal feeding, a number of researchers have investigated the proximate composition of neem seed cake (Bawa et al., 2006; Uko and Kamalu, 2001),  leaf meal (Oforjindu, 2006; Esonu et al., 2005, 2006; Ogbuewu et al., 2010a, b) and its use as feedstuff in poultry (Esonu et al., 2005; Oforjindu, 2006; Uko and Kamalu, 2007) and rabbits (Sokunbi and Egbunike, 2000a; Ogbuewu, 2008). Result of proximate analysis of neem showed that of had 92.42% dry matter, 7.58% moisture, 20.68% crude protein, 16.60% crude fibre, 4.13% ether extract, 7.10% ash and 43.91% nitrogen free extract (Esonu et al., 2005; Oforjindu, 2006; Ogbuewu, 2008).

Neem cake has also been widely used as animal feed (Bawa et al., 2006; Uko and 2007). Despite the bitter components, poultry consume diets containing varied percentage of neem cake. Alkali treatment of neem cake with caustic soda yields palatable product, by removing the toxicant triterpenoids (Devakumar and Dev, 1993). Nagalakshmi et al. (1996) and Verma et al. (1998) reported beneficial effect of alkali treated (10-20 g NaOH) neem kernel cake incorporated into poultry feeds. It resulted to an increased feeding value and protein utilization with spectacular growth. However, no significant difference was observed among the different dietary groups in feed intake, egg production, egg quality, fertility, hatchability and chick weight (Nagalakshmi et al., 1996; Verma et al. 1998).

Neem oil and de-oiled neem seed cake are used as animal feed. Neem oil which is rich in long chain fatty acids is used in poultry feed. Deoiled neem seed cake is rich in essential amino acids, crude proteins, fiber contents, sulphur and nitrogen (Uko and Kamalu, 2007

Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) belongs to the family of lily; It is spiky, succulent, and perennial. It is native to the eastern and southern part of Africa but it has spread throughout the warmer regions of the world like the Philippines. Physically, it is a short-stemmed plant that could grow from 80 to 100 cm tall, spreading by offsets and root sprouts. The leaves are lanceolate, thick and fleshy with thorny edges and with color ranging from deep green to greygreen.

It is ubiquitous in almost every house garden and is either used as accents for landscaping or for its medicinal value. Since it is easy to grow and maintain, it is widely used as natural ground cover or container. Aloe vera is not only a natural healer; it’s also a growth enhancer in poultry. Hearing that, one might think, it’s too good to be true. Essentially, the leaves of aloe vera are often for external uses only, they are not meant to be taken in. But with the study of Bejar and Colapo, it’s now clear that it’s safe for animal intake. Thus, it is important to know what’s in the aloe vera that makes it both a natural healer and a growth promoter in chickens.

Physically, the leaf of an aloe vera is composed of three layers. The first layer contains a clear gel, which is contained within the cells of the inner portion. Then there is the anthraquinones contained in the bitter yellow sap of the middle leaf layer and the fibrous outer part of the leaf that serves a protective function.

The content of the aloe vera leaf is just 0.5 – 1.5% solid, with an average pH value of 4.55. This solid material contains over 75 different nutrients including vitamins and minerals.

Aloe vera is rich in vitamins and minerals. Specific vitamins include: Vitamin A (Beta-Carotene), Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (Niacin), Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine), Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Choline, and Folic Acid. The vitamins A, C, and E are responsible for the aloe’s antioxidant activity while vitamin B and choline are involved in amino acid metabolism and vitamin B12 is required for the production and development of blood cells.(source Rita dela cruz of www.bar.gov.ph)

Among the important minerals found in aloe vera are: calcium, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc. These minerals are essential for good health and are known to work in synergistic combinations with each other, with vitamins and other trace elements. . (source Rita dela cruz of www.bar.gov.ph

Aside from vitamins and minerals, aloe vera is rich with enzymes (help the breakdown of food sugars and fats), hormones (aid in healing and antiinflammatory activities), sugars (i.e. glucose and fructose that provide antiinflammatory activity), anthraquinones or phenolic compounds (aid absorption from gastro-intestinal tract and have antimicrobial and pain killing effects), lignin (increases the blood circulation), saponins (provide cleansing and antiseptic activity), sterols (antiseptic and analgesic), amino acids (basic building blocks of proteins in the production of muscle tissue), and salicylic acid (works as a pain killer)(source: T. Rita dela cruz of www.bar.gov.ph).

Although the use of various plant extracts in broiler production has been documented, there is paucity of information on the growth and physiological response of broiler birds to oral supplementation with aloe vera and neem leaves extracts.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.

Achieving maximum health and performance of poultry requires nutritionally balanced diets. One of the common issues with regard to back yard flocks relates to poor or inadequate feeding programs that can lead to vitamin and mineral deficiencies in the birds. Since vitamins and minerals are very important to normal physiological functioning of birds, inadequate supply of these nutrients will pose a serious problem to birds. It is also costly to use commercial produced vitamins hence increasing the cost of poultry production.

 

 

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.

The study aimed at determining the physiological response of broiler birds to oral supplementation with aloe vera and neem leaf extracts as supplementary sources of vitamins and minerals to broiler birds.

 

1.4 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY.

As indicated above, vitamin and mineral deficiencies can produce numerous health problems for chickens including death in some cases. Thus, to prevent nutritional deficiencies, or to correct when deficiency symptoms are noted, feeding a balanced poultry ration with the required vitamins and minerals should be practiced. Besides, oral administration of vitamins and minerals to birds is inevitable especially in the time of stress and outbreak of diseases. The use of aloe vera and neem leaves extracts in broiler production is a step in the right direction since they are of potential sources of these essential nutrients that are necessary for normal well being, growth and development of birds.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

The study was to:

  1. Determine the effect of alovera gel and Neem leaf extracts on growth performance of broiler starter and finisher birds.
  1. Determine the effect of alovera gel and Neem leaf extracts on mortality, blood and biochemical parameters of broiler starter and finisher birds.
  • Determine the effect of alovera gel and Neem leaf extracts on carcass yield and organ weights of broiler starter and finisher birds.
  1. Determine the cost implication of oral supplementation with aloe vera and neem leaf extracts as supplementary sources of vitamins and minerals.

PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF BROILER BIRDS TO ORAL SUPPLEMENTATION WITH ALOE VERA AND NEEM LEAVE EXTRACTS

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