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Branding, as any other concept, has evolved over time: from the days when sheep of one herd started to be branded to distinguish them from another herd to the current era when everything, from water and flowers to clothes and food, is branded. Throughout these times, there have been numerous theories to describe and understand the underlying nuances. This paper finds the relationships in previous literature and reveals how these theories see branding from various perspectives and how they can be integrated to form a coherent view. It is also discussed how branding and society affect each other. Based on the knowledge of how branding theories have been developed as dependent variables of each other and the society, we are able to form a better understanding of the past, the present, and the future of branding.


KEYWORDS: Branding and Evolution of Branding, Future.


Approval Page          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Certification  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Dedication     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Acknowledgments   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Table of Contents-   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v-vi

List of Plates-            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Abstract         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii



1.0 Introduction        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.1 Objective of the study- –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

1.2 Statement of the problem          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.3 Scope of the study         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.4 Significance of study-   –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           8

1.5 Limitations of the study –          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

1.6 Definition of Terms-      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

1.7 Methodology-    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9



LITERATURE REVIEW–           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           10

2.1 Branding before the 1970s-      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11

2.2 Branding in the 1970s and 1980s-       –           –           –           –           –           –           15

2.3 Branding in the 1990s and 21st century-        –           –           –           –           –           18

2.4 Discussion: The Future of Branding-  –           –           –           –           –           –           22








3.0 Design Procedure and Process-           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.1 Materials –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.2 Tools and Equipment    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           25

3.3 Step By Step Studio Experiment         –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.4 Concept Identification  –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.5 Thumbnail          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.6 Layout     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           26

3.7 Computer Aided Design (C.A.D)        –           –           –           –           –           –           27

3.8 Printing    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           27

3.9 Finishing –           –           –           –           –           –                       –           –           –           27



Presentation and Discussion           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           28



Conclusion    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

References    –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           35





There are many reasons why companies or organizations might consider re-branding their products. Most of them are firmly rooted in a need to reposition the firm in the marketplace. It could be as simple as the merger of two firms or as complex as a major shift in target clients or business strategy. It could equal be a change in the visual design approach of the activities of the firm.  But whatever the reason, a firm eventually faces the question of how to re-brand in a way that yields the desired business result. Any re-branding strategy should start with a thorough understanding of the business reason behind the re-branding.  The reason for re-branding might be driven by a need to accelerate growth? In this case the visual resource approach might be employed in other to simplify design and focus correct messages. A brand is the idea or image of a specific product or services that consumers connect with by identifying the name Logo Slogan or the corporate identity of the company.

Brand promotion is a common marketing strategy intended to increase product awareness, customer loyalty. According to the Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, promotion refers to raising customer’s awareness of product or Brand, generating sales and creating brand loyalty. The purpose of a promotion and thus its promotional plan can have a wide range, including sales increase, new product acceptance, creation of Brand equity, positioning, competitive retaliations or creation of cooperate image. The term promotion is usually an “in” expression used internally by marketing company, its usually recognized in the market place special offer. Positioning is a marketing strategy that is aimed at making a Brand occupy a distinct position relative to completing brands in the minds of the customer companies apply this strategy by adding distinctive features to the product promotion. Brand Identity is the part of the re-branding strategy where the designer develops the visual elements that will communicate the company’s brand. That includes:  firm name, logo, tagline, colors, business card design, stationary, and so one. Many people confuse these elements with brand.  A company brand is its reputation and visibility, not the firm’s name or its logo. A  brand identity is a sort of visual shorthand for its Royco, is a brand name of a food seasoning in Nigeria, subdued by other giants of the food seasoning brand, brand promotion and positioning and re-branding of this product using different  illustration assist in making this product the envy of the giants and a delight to those who have not known or used it because of its positioning in the market place, in order to achieve this, more creative ways of expressing and promoting the product has been carefully sort for this is seen through the results of the studio analysis in re-branding the Logo and Adverts and posters, Illustration present the design templates to evoke its attraction. It is however important to understand Brand promotion and positioning, Koteler (2002) aptly defined “positioning as the act of designing the companies offering and image to occupy a meaningful and distinctive position in the mind of target consumers” (P.308). Product positioning denotes the specific product category or product class in which the given product is competing, and Brand positioning denotes the positioning of Brands compared to competing Brands.

Ries and Trout (1997) suggested that, to succeed in the competitive market, the first step is to position the brand in the target consumers mind in such a way that their perception of the brand, its distinctive and offers non-customer value. Most times companies after realizing the funds put in a specific Brand forgets the need for continuity as the brand is over taking by companies who are less than the Latter, Sinda (2006) indicated that a strong brand position means the brand has a unique credible sustainable and valued place with the customers. Brand has the capacity to capture the imagination. The Brand name is what most people remember and recall, sharply positioned Brands stand out from the competition.

Advertising is a very powerful form of communication in modern society, it offers the most sustained and most concentrated set of images anywhere in a system. It is important in the discussion of Brand promotion and positioning because it is an essential mechanism for advancing capitalism; it serves as a mobilizing force for inhibiting of change.

Kamuen, (2004) opined that outdoor advertizing presents a unique case, in that unlike advertizing in other media, an individual’s capacity to avoid exposure is uninhibited, unlike the private world of magazine and television outdoor advertising is displayed in all public places thereby making it inescapable. Re-branded products create attention if advertised outdoor, it generate comments and finally lure consumers into purchasing of the product. This research work is aimed at stimulating people’s desire towards the acceptance of the product, creating image enhancement, Affective fulfillment and provide sensory stimulation.

It is not questionable whether the pre-historic man made illustrations and marks on cave wall both as a form of prayer, and to advertise individual strength and ability, later on was the paintings and wall illustrations and engravings of the ancient Egyptian pyramids which advertise and promote great deeds and accomplishments of different pharaohs and his subjects. The inscribed ivory box from Umm el – QaabAbyos, as pictured in Emily Teeter (2011) “Before the Pyramid; the origin of Egyptian civilization shows that inscription and illustrations were used to identify, indicate, and promote reservation for kings and his position as sacred and uncommon. This locates the fact that illustration has been a tool for individuals and cooperation’s to advertise and promote brands and products in order to give it more value and acceptance. Also Aniakor and Cole (1984) reports that in Okwu Olokoro, a village near Umuahia had in 1984 commissioned the building of a long wall as a way leading to the residential areas of the community. They further reports that a known artist was also commissioned to make more than twenty-five separate ponds serially illustrating daily ceremonial village life. This again shows that apart from promoting trade and commerce, illustrations has a well played important role in giving information about the general cultured lives of communities and nations.

In line with the above, there is however other forms of illustrations in the form of cartoons, drawing, and paintings. The general views of drawing as a universal language also points to the fact that illustrations are understood by everyone despite language barriers. To the graphic and to illustrations are parts of the element for effective visual communication. Without illustrations, symbols like company logos, emblems, and other forms of corporate identities will definitely be difficult. This informs its constant use in graphic layout design which enhances brand and product promotion.

The function and art of branding is a major contributor to the success of a product or service sold by the company that markets it.

According to Webster’s Dictionary, a brand is defined as “a means of identification,” or “an arbitrarily adopted name that is given by a manufacturer or merchant to an article or service to distinguish it as produced or sold by that manufacturer or merchant that may be used and protected as a trademark.  We look at a brand as more than a trademark for the legal protection of the product or service offered. Well, at least we think it should be. This is where many marketers get into trouble and lose the positive impact of proper brand management.

Brand management should aim to build into customers’ minds a set of perceptions and attitudes relating to an offering, leading to positive buying behavior r. To achieve this goal, managers must know a great deal about their customer base. The power of a brand is measured by its effect on buyers. A powerful brand will cause its customer base to either defer or refuse to purchase if the brand is NOT avail a b l e. Some brands have reached a level of mass acceptance where they are used as action verbs, such as “Xeroxing” a document instead of copying it and “Fedexing” a package rather than mailing or posting it. One brand’s identity is so strong that when we hear Aspirin we immediately think of Bayer.

The Origin of Spices in Ancient Egyptian and Arabian beginnings (from about 2600 BC)

The first authentic, records of the use of spices and herbs may date from the Pyramid Age in Egypt, approximately 2600 to 2100 BC. Onions and garlic were fed to the one hundred thousand labourers who toiled in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, as medicinal herbs to preserve their health.

A monument dedicated to the Egyptian pharaoh Sahure, dating from the 25th century BC, records the receipt of a great quantity of ebony, gold, and silver and eighty thousand measures of myrrh from the “land of Punt.”

Later, when they became essential ingredients in the embalming process, cassia and cinnamon were imported to Egypt from China and Southeast Asia. To appease the gods of death, the bodies of important personages were preserved against decay by embalming, which involved cleansing the interior of the abdomen and rinsing it with fragrant spices, including cumin, anise, marjoram, cassia, and cinnamon.

The origin of perfumery is shrouded in obscurity, but the word perfume (per, through, and fumum, smoke) suggests that it was first obtained by burning aromatic gums and hardened oozing from resinous woods such as bdellium, balsam, myrrh, and frankincense. These shrublike, thorny perennial desert trees and bushes grew for the most part in hot dry regions stretching from western India to central Africa. As unpleasant odors were associated with evil, so were sweet clean scents linked with purity and goodness. Thus a demand was created for the fragrant gums collected from these shrubs for use in embalming, perfumes, medicine, and anointing oils and as incense offerings in fumigation, to please the ancient gods, and to banish evil spirits, insects, pests, and serpents.

The upper classes in Egypt also fumigated their homes with incense to ward off the foul odors of the crowded lower classes. Since it has been proved in recent years that the burning of incense produces phenol, or carbolic acid, an antiseptic widely used during the nineteenth century, this custom may have had some merit.

In ancient civilizations no sharp distinction was made between food plants used for flavoring, spice plants, medicinal plants, and sacrificial plants. If certain leaves, seeds, roots, and gums had a pleasant, pungent taste and an agreeable odor, an extensive demand gradually developed for them, culminating in their use as condiments. The earliest mention in the Bible of an aromatic substance occurs in Genesis 2:12 in reference to the Spices were used in early Egypt as aromatic body ointments and pomades. Today Royco food seasoning has bee able to replicate same in there new Beef flavour, fish flavour, crayfish, stimulating the desire to eat as the result of the aroma.


This research work tends to re-brand Royco food seasoning and position it in the market place for optimum sales to make it a super seasoning, captivating and the delight of kitchen ingredients.



The problem arise when a product that needs to compete with its equal in the market place is dormant, why the low sale, why is the product is not known, could it be as a result of the packaging, colour, logo, this problem requires a solution through the following highlight.

The highlights are:- improvement upon the following;

  • Logo
  • Change in cooperate identity
  • Change in advertising concepts.


The preview of this research is limited to the Department of Fine and Applied Arts, University of Nigeria; its purpose is strictly for academic purposes.

It presents a template for the enhancement and repositioning of the product through re-branding.


The purpose of this research work is to use new graphic templates and software like photoshop to manipulate and create something that excite the mind via the re-branding of Royco food seasoning. These are seen in the choice of logo, colour, and advertising.




Finance, time and inadequate material on the selected topic and the non-availability of materials that should be used during the studio analysis hindered the completion of this research work at due time, however, time can never be enough and every research work is a continuous process that will be updated with time.


Brand:                        A brand is the image or idea of a specific product

Positioning:               Is a making strategy intended to make a brand occupy a district position in the mind of a customer?

Brand identity:          Re-branding strategies that is were the designer develops the visual elements.

Promotion:                A strategy is intended to improve sale.


The researcher employed studio approach. Primary and secondary data were collected and reviewed based on the information required. The primary data were collected through personal interview, photographs and video documentation. Secondary data are literary documentations and publications which Include books, periodicals and internet sources



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