DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ALARM SYSTEM USING LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR)

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ALARM SYSTEM USING LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR)

ABSTRACT

This project is titled design and construction of an automatic fire alarm. Fire alarm is an electronics device that is stored in a building to detect the presence of fire accident. An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated system to control the spread of fire and smoke. This fire alarm system composes of light dependent resistor (LDR) which works as a smoke sensor. Light dependent resistor is a type of resistor that has a resistances that changes with the light intensity that fall upon it. it has the resistance that falls with increase in the light intensity falling upon it(that is, in the absent of smoke) and the resistance rises when darkness(that is, when smoke) falls upon it. the resistance of the light dependent resistor is about 5000 ohms in the absent of smoke and about 20000000 ohms in the presents of smoke.

The aim of this project is to design and construct a fire alarm for a building that will detect the presence of fire accident in a building.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                      INTRODUCTION
In modern society, it is impossible to imagine house or building without a fire accident detector. Modern houses require a continuous installation of fire detector. Not only industry, but also in the household. Take the case of a duplex that experience a fire accident without a detector that means everything in that building will get burnt even human beings. But in a case whereby fire alarm is installed that means every one in that building will be alerted and also fire security bodies will also be informed for quick security action. The same thing can also happen to our offices and industries. In order to notify residence of any building in the presence of fire accident, a fire alarm system is used.
An automatic fire alarm system is designed to detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion. In general, a fire alarm system is classified as either automatically actuated, manually actuated, or both. Automatic fire alarm systems are intended to notify the building occupants to evacuate in the event of a fire or other emergency, report the event to an off-premises location in order to summon emergency services, and to prepare the structure and associated systems to control the spread of fire and smoke.

1.1                           OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this work is to construct a device that will detect the unwanted presence of fire by monitoring environmental changes associated with combustion.

1.2                                ADVANTAGES OF FIRE ALRM SYSTEM
The primary advantage of a home fire alarm system is increased reliability and the ability to place alarms and bells exactly where needed. However, the reason most people have them is that they wanted a burglar alarm system and the cost of adding fire alarm features to a residential burglary system is relatively small.
Another advantage is that they are the only way to obtain remote monitoring services. This becomes important in cases where family members may not be capable of escaping from a fire without assistance. For example, if you have an older or physically impaired person in your home and a fire started when no one was home to assist that person, alarms alone might not be enough to assure their safety.
A feature of most monitoring services is the ability to keep special information on the residence which comes up on the computer screen whenever an alarm is received from that home. Thus, if there is a disabled person in the home who needs special assistance this fact will be known to the operator and can be passed along to the fire department when they are called

1.3                               PARTS OF FIRE ALARM
Fire alarm composed of the following parts:

  1. Primary Power supply: Commonly the non-switched 240 Volt Alternating Current source supplied from a commercial power utility. In non-residential applications, a branch circuit is dedicated to the fire alarm system and its constituents. “Dedicated branch circuits” should not be confused with “Individual branch circuits” which supply energy to a single appliance.
  2. Secondary (backup) Power supplies: This component, commonly consisting of sealed lead-acid storage batteries or other emergency sources including generators, is used to supply energy in the event of a primary power failure.
  3. Initiating Devices: This component acts as an input to the fire alarm control unit and are either manually or automatically actuated. Examples would be devices pull stations, heat detectors, or smoke detectors. Heat and smoke detectors have different categories of both kinds.

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

 

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

 

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

 

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretation of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

 

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation  –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF ALARM SYSTEM USING LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR (LDR)

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