DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PASSIVE INFRARED (PIR) BASED AUTOMATIC DOOR SYSTEM

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PASSIVE INFRARED (PIR) BASED AUTOMATIC DOOR SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

The project is on a passive infrared (PIR) based automatic door alarm system used in places like shopping malls, hotels and theatres.
This project proposes a system of automatic sensing any body movement object near the door. This is achieved with help of a PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor. A live body generally emits infrared energy which is sensed by the PIR sensor from a considerable distance. This sensing signal is fed to an integrated circuit to trigger a buzzer.
When a body approaches within the operating range of the sensor, it sends a logical command through an alarm indicating that someone is approaching the door. If there is no further movement within the PIR operating range. 

 

CHAPTER ONE
1.1                                                        INTRODUCTION
The need for having home protection has always been there. But in the recent times, considering a dramatic rise in petty crimes like robbery and theft, the need has been more strongly felt to have a fool proof protection of the belongings and the family members. Home security has come a long way in the last few decades. It was in the hands of a guard who manually provided surveillance during nights in the earlier days, but it was not fool proof as it was only normal for him to have momentary lapse of concentration.
Burglar Alarm Working SchemeThe guard was also susceptible to sleep at times. It was then that home alarm system based upon electronic circuits were developed which proved to be highly reliable and were appreciated by the people as they were relieved from constant monitoring of their homes.
An automatic door alarm system is one of the home door alarm which is also called motion detector: The most common single-technology motion detecting sensor uses passive infrared (PIR) energy to recognize the movement of object, such as a person walking near the door. It is most effective in detecting when the heat mass moves across its field of vision.
This project proposes a system of automatic door alarm system by sensing any body movement near the door. This is achieved with help of a PIR (Passive Infrared) sensor. A live body generally emits infrared energy which is sensed by the PIR sensor from a considerable distance. This sensing signal is fed to an integrated circuit to operate an alarm.

1.2                                               OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this work is to design a device that will trigger an alarm when sensing any body movement near the door.

1.3                                         SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
Automatic doors alarm operates with the help of passive infrared sensor which is also called optic or motion sensors. These sensors might be mounted above a set of automatic doors or built on the top or the sides of the frame of the automatic doors.
When these optic or motion sensors sense motion nearby, they trigger the alarm. Automatic door alarm has many useful purposes, which is why you can find them in many different types of locations. From supermarkets to airports and many types of large buildings, automatic doors make it easier for people to get into and out of buildings. They are especially helpful for people who are handicapped.

1.4                                          APPLICATION OF THE PROJECT

This device not just used for home security. In industrial fields, they are used on assembly lines to keep track of the number of products and to shut down dangerous equipment if a person gets too close. Here are a few other ways this device is used:

  • To open and close automatic Doors
  • To turn on and off automatic water faucets and toilets
  • To turn on lights when a person enters a room
  • To control ATM displays
  • At automatic ticket gates
  • For some parking meters

1.5                                                 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
Generally, in security systems, infrared or laser transmitters and receivers are used. But these methods are cost effective. This work explains about PIR based security system in which PIR sensor is used instead of transmitter or receiver. This saves the power consumption and is low cost. PIR sensor is the short form of Passive Infrared Sensor.
The PIR sensors are more complicated than the other sensors as they consist of two slots. These slots are made of a special material which is sensitive to IR. The Fresnel lens is used to see that the two slots of the PIR can see out past some distance. When the sensor is inactive, then the two slots sense the same amount of IR. The ambient amount radiates from the outdoors, walls or room, etc.
When a human body or any animal passes by, then it intercepts the first slot of the PIR sensor. This causes a positive differential change between the two bisects. When a human body leaves the sensing area, the sensor generates a negative differential change between the two bisects. The infrared sensor itself is housed in a hermetically sealed metal to improve humidity/temperature/noise/immunity. There is a window which is made of typically coated silicon material to protect the sensing element.
This work is based on PIR sensor with an IC that produces alarm. The PIR sensor detects the IR radiations emitted from the humans and it produces a digital output.

1.6                                 PROBLEM/LIMITATION OF THE PROJECT

This device sensor has some problem:

  • It has a limited distance to detect the human/object
  • If the sensor is not mounted securely, normal vibration, sign, plants and neon light can trigger the alarm.
  • It cannot detect the small objects such as insects or raindrop.
  • The reliability of a PIR sensor may also be affected by rapid environmental changes and direct sunlight. Also, things like a fireplace, and direct wind from an air conditioner or heater. This is because a PIR sensor actually detects changes in infrared energy – specifically, the “heat energy” emitted by normal human skin temperature.

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

 

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

 

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

 

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation  –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PASSIVE INFRARED (PIR) BASED AUTOMATIC DOOR SYSTEM

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