DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROXIMITY DETECTOR

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DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROXIMITY DETECTOR

ABSTRACT

A proximity sensor is a sensor able to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact. Examples of proximity sensor usage include detecting an out-of-paper condition in a printer or a mobile phone screen that dims to save battery life when placed near a face. Proximity sensor often emits an electromagnetic field or a beam of electromagnetic radiation (infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in the field or return signal. The object being sensed is often referred to as the proximity sensor’s target.
Proximity Sensors are analog output reflective sensors in a small form factor SMT package that offer a distance detection range near zero to 60mm. Their operating principle is based on a high frequency oscillator that creates a field in the close surroundings of the sensing surface. The presence of a metallic object (inductive) or any material (capacitive) in the operating area causes a change of the oscillation amplitude. The rise or fall of such oscillation is identified by a threshold circuit that changes the output state of the sensor. The operating distance of the sensor depends on the actuator’s shape and size and is strictly linked to the nature of the material. 

Title Page———i

Certification——–ii

Dedication———iii

Acknowledgement——-iv

Abstract ———vi

Table of Content——–vii

 

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction ——-1

1.1 Statement of Problem——4

1.2 Purpose of the Study——5

1.3 Significance of Study——8

1.4 Limitation——–9

1.5 Scope of Study——-11

 

Chapter Two

2.0 Review of Related Literature —-12

2.6 Summary of Literature Review—- 19

 

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology and Procedure—22

3.1 Population ——–22

3.2 Sample and Sampling Technique—-22

3.3 Validation of the Instrument —-23

3.4 Reliability of the Instrument —–23

3.5 Data Analysis——-23

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation and Discussion of Result—24

4.1 Analysis and interpretaion of Data—25

4.2 Discussion of Results——38

 

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendation  –40

5.1 Summary——–40

5.2 Conclusion——–41

5.3 Recommendation——42

References ———45

Appendix 1——–47

Appendix ———50

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROXIMITY DETECTOR

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