CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF URINARY BLADDER BIOPSIES SEEN IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN

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CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF URINARY BLADDER BIOPSIES SEEN IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN

Abstract

Background
There is a paucity of studies on the general pattern of urinary bladder biopsies in the Nigerian
literature. This retrospective study was therefore undertaken to analyse the pattern of urinary
bladder biopsies as seen at the University College Hospital Ibadan, Nigeria over a twenty
four year period.
Methods
Four hundred and sixty-nine cases of urinary bladder biopsies diagnosed between January
1990 and December 2013 were obtained from the records of the Department of Pathology,
University College Hospital, Ibadan. Clinical details were retrieved from the surgical
pathology request forms and case notes of these patients. The original slides or new slides
prepared from blocks of paraffin-embedded tissues were reviewed. The neoplastic lesions
were classified according to the 2004 WHO classification for urinary tract neoplasms.
Results
Three hundred and fifty cases were used for the study. The modal age was 60-69 with a male
to female ratio of 2.8:1. Haematuria and irritative symptoms were the most common
symptoms of these patients. Most of the lesions were multiple or involved the inferolateral
wall. Neoplasms were the most common diagnostic category accounting for 76.6% of cases.
The other common diagnostic pathological categories included inflammatory lesions (14.3%)
and metaplastic lesions (4.9%). The malignant neoplasms comprised urothelial carcinoma
(63.8%), squamous cell carcinoma (15.6%), adenocarcinoma (6.6%), embryonal
rhabdomyosarcoma (5.1%) and secondary cancers (8.9%). There was a strong association
between schistosomiasis and squamous cell carcinoma. Forty eight percent of patients with
cancer presented with pT2 stage of disease.
Conclusion
Urinary bladder biopsies received in the Department of Pathology, University College
Hospital, Ibadan, are not common. The urinary bladder has a diverse spectrum of diseases.
Biopsies are important in stratifying patients for management because many of the diagnostic
entities may present similar findings clinically. Neoplasms are the most common diagnostic
category followed by inflammatory lesions. This study confirms a changing trend in the
pattern of vesical malignancy in Ibadan, Nigeria from squamous cell carcinoma to urothelial
carcinoma. Most of these tumours are multiple and present at stage pT2 and above.

CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF URINARY BLADDER BIOPSIES SEEN IN THE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL, IBADAN

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